Surface Properties of Biomaterials: Poster Session
Program Organizers: Ryan Bock, SINTX Technologies; Jason Langhorn, DePuy Synthes Joint Reconstruction; Susmita Bose, Washington State University; Amit Bandyopadhyay, Washington State University; Mangal Roy, Indian Institute of Technology-Kharagpur; Venu Varanasi, University of Texas at Arlington

Tuesday 11:00 AM
October 1, 2019
Room: Exhibit Hall CD
Location: Oregon Convention Center

P1-10: 3D Printing of Bioglass-TCP Scaffolds: Biological and Mechanical Property Evaluation: Arjak Bhattacharjee1; Dishary Banerjee1; Aldo Boccaccini2; Amit Bandyopadhyay1; Susmita Bose1; 1Washington State University; 2University of Erlangen-Nuremberg
    The objective of this study is to prepare 3D printed cytocompatible bioglass-TCP scaffolds with an optimum combination of porosity gradient and mechanical properties. Bioactive glasses (bioglass) are an excellent candidate for bone tissue engineering applications because of their excellent biological response and high dissolution rate. Tricalcium phosphate (TCP) is used for craniomaxillofacial applications owing to their chemical similarities with natural bone. Our results indicate that upto 5 wt.% bioglass addition in TCP enhances the compressive strength of the prepared scaffolds to ~ 26.675 5.45 MPa as compared to ~ 8.50 0.830 MPa of TCP. Simulated body fluid (SBF) dissolution study reveals that bioglass addition in TCP improves the dissolution precipitation and confirms cytocompatibility.This work affirms that 3D printed bioglass-tcp scaffolds can be a promising material for various biomedical applications. This poster will discuss the fabrication of 3D printed bioglass-Tcp scaffolds with optimum mechanical properties and controlled dissolution rate.

P1-11: Bio-tribocorrosion of Metals and Alloys: Jose Avila1; Amit Bandyopadhyay1; Susmita Bose1; 1Washington State University
    In any device in a mechanical and physiological-based application, that involves the relative motion of two materials in contact with each other, produces friction and subsequent wear debris. In order to properly tailor or improve materials the wear and corrosion system needs to be identified and understood. A wear mechanism, apart from the two surfaces in contact and in relative motion, consist of a wear mode and form. Progressive loss of material is the mutual factor in any form of material degradation; this can be wear, erosion and/or corrosion induced. Understanding how and when this occurs is necessary for suppression of the degradation issue. We discuss a set of and acknowledged techniques for testing and characterizing tribological and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. Bio-tribocorrosion testing, as it is commonly referred to, allows for identifying the mechanical and chemical stability of a metal or alloy simultaneously.

P1-12: Designing Alloys Using Additive Manufacturing for Orthopedic Applications: Indranath Mitra1; Susmita Bose1; Amit Bandyopadhyay1; 1Washington State University
    Structural and compositional properties of a biomaterial play a crucial role in how the physiological environment of the host responds in terms of biological reactions. Additive manufacturing offers the ability to create materials with 3D structural design symmetry as well as layer-wise compositional variations in addition to flexibility in designs and on-demand manufacturing. These advantages come together to pave way towards manufacturing innovative metallic biomaterials by bridging different length scales. For example, macroscale layer-wise or gradient fabrication of metallic alloys with structural and functional design such as microporosities and nanoscale surface modifications can be achieved which can elicit a timely response in vitro and in vivo. In this demonstration, we have explored how additive manufacturing can be used to design next-generation alloys for orthopedic and dental applications.

P1-13: Effects of Crocin and Bicarbonate as Anti-inflammatory Agents and Osteogenic Factors for In Vivo Bone Formation: Sam Robertson1; Caitlin Koski1; Susmita Bose1; 1Washington State Univ
    Delayed healing and nonhealing in bone defects and resected bone sites remains an important clinical concern in the biomedical field. Studies have shown that the multistage regenerative process of bone healing initiated in response to injury or repair is improved by modulating inflammation. Immunomodulation at implantation can thus be utilized in order to enhance tissue regeneration. In this study crocin, saffron’s natural bioactive and anti-inflammatory molecule, and bicarbonate, a neutralizing agent, were directly loaded onto TCP scaffolds to evaluate their in vivo effects on inflammation and early-stage osteogenesis utilizing a distal rat femur model. The presence of crocin and bicarbonate were assessed at 1 and 4 weeks in order to analyze recruitment of immune cells as well as mineralized bone formation. This poster will argue the candidacy of both drug agents for wound healing and bone tissue regeneration application.

P1-14: Effects of Garlic Extract Released from Calcium Phosphate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering Applications: Ashley Vu1; Susmita Bose1; 1Washington State University
    Garlic is historically known for the prevention and treatment of diseases all over the world including immune system promotion, reduction of blood pressure, improved cholesterol levels, antioxidant properties, and antibacterial properties. Little knowledge is known on the effects of garlic on bone health in humans however animal studies have shown garlic can minimize bone loss through increasing estrogen levels and reduce osteoclast bone resorption. One of the most well-known sulfur compounds extracted from garlic is allicin. The objective of this study is to understand the effects of allicin release on the bone remodeling process. The hypothesis is allicin will show no cytotoxic effects to osteoblast cells, reduce osteoclast resorption, and provide antibacterial properties. Allicin showed no cytotoxic effects on osteoblast morphology, reduction of osteoclast resorption pits, and antibacterial properties against S. epidermidis bacterial growth. This presentation will include extraction methods, release profiles, bacterial results, and in vitro bone cell results.

P1-15: Evaluation of Bioactivity and Mechanical Properties of Silica-based Ceramic for Using in Tissue Engineering Application: Fariborz Tavangarian1; Sorour Sadeghzade2; Rahmatollah Emadi2; 1Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg; 2Isfahan University of Technology
    Bone engineering presents an alternative approach to repair and regenerate a damaged tissue. For bone repair and bone tissue engineering applications, bioactive materials with different degradation and mechanical properties are needed. Recently hardystonite bioceramic have received great attention for treatment of bone defects. In this study, a bioactive hardystonite (HT) - forstrite (FO) nanocomposite was fabricated by two step sintering method. The structure, morphology and bioactivity potential of the nanocomposite were examined using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The composite with optimized mechanical properties was HT-20wt.%Fo that had the compressive modulus and strength of 287 MPa and 149 MPa, respectively. The feasibility of the produced composite for bone tissue engineering application was evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF). A range of characterization techniques was applied to confirm the deposition of Hydroxyl carbonated apatite (HCA) deposition on the surface of HT-20wt.%Fo composite following 7 days in SBF. Overall, results suggest that HT-20wt.%Fo composite with improved mechanical properties, and apatite formation ability can be a promising candidate for bone tissue engineering applications.

P1-16: Evaluation of Mechanical Properties, Biodegradability and Bioactivity of Forsterite-Diopside Scaffolds Coated by Polycaprolacton Fumarate: Sorour Sadeghzade1; Rahmatollah Emadi1; Fariborz Tavangarian2; 1Isfahan University of Technology; 2Pennsylvania State University, Harrisburg
    One of the significant challenges in bone tissue engineering is the fabrication of highly porous scaffolds with interconnected pores and appropriate mechanical properties. Commonly available synthetic scaffolds are made of ceramic or polymer, but a better combination of properties can be achieved with a composite or multi-component structure. The aim of this study is to produce three-dimensional (forsterite-diopside) porous scaffolds using space holder technique in order to use in bone tissue engineering. Therefore, forsterite and Diopside nanopowders were synthesized via mechanical activation and sol-gel methods, respectively, and then were mixed with various ratios. After addition of sodium chloride as spacer with appropriate weight percentage, the powder mixture was compacted under the uniaxial compression. In order to remove sodium chloride and develop a porous structure, samples were sintered. After determination of the optimal scaffolds in terms of mechanical properties, the scaffolds were coated with 6 wt.% poly caprolactone fumarate solution and their mechanical, physical and biological properties was evaluated. The results showed that the addition of 10 wt.% diopside nanopowder altered the properties of the scaffolds such that compressive strength increased to 4.36 MPa compared to pure forsterite (3.45 MPa). Applying the polymer coating with cross-linked structure on the optimal scaffolds improved the compressive strength by 23%. Based on the results of Archimedes’ principle and SEM micrographs, the addition of 10 wt.% diopside had a negligible effect on the porosity but improved the pores morphology. SEM micrographs of scaffolds after soaking in SBF depicted tiny agglomerated bone-like apatite particles. Considering the results obtained, it seems that, the produced scaffolds could be a good candidate for bone tissue engineering applications.

P1-17: Novel Dual-drug Delivery System from HA Coated Ti Implant for Enhanced In Vitro Osteogenesis and Chemoprevention: Naboneeta Sarkar1; Susmita Bose1; 1Washington State University
    Hydroxyapatite (HAp) coated titanium (Ti) implants are being extensively used in orthopedic surgeries and post-tumor resection to repair load bearing segmental bone defects. Here, curcumin and vitamin K are loaded onto plasma coated HAp on Ti surface to evaluate their chemo-preventive and osteogenic properties. Controlled release of curcumin and vitamin K is assessed by in vitro release kinetics study. The adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblast cell line and human osteosarcoma cell line onto the surface of curcumin and vitamin K loaded HAp coated Ti implant are also compared. The result shows that controlled release of drug results in almost 3 folds inhibition of osteosarcoma cell proliferation while promoting osteoblast cell attachment, viability and differentiation. The presentation will discuss about the potential of curcumin and vitamin K loaded HAp coated Ti implant with improved osteogenic and chemopreventive properties as a promising reconstructive option to repair the post-resection defects in osteosarcoma.