4th International Congress on 3D Materials Science (3DMS) 2018: Posters
Program Organizers: Hugh Simons, Denmark Technical University; Henning Poulsen, Denmark Technical University; David Rowenhorst, Naval Research Laboratory; Peter Voorhees, Northwestern University; Satoshi Hata, Kyushu Univ; McLean Echlin, UC Santa Barbara

Monday 6:30 PM
June 11, 2018
Room: Store Scene
Location: Kulturvćrftet (Culture Yard) Conference Center

P-1: Porosity Analysis of AM Powder based on Machine Learning Approach: He Liu1; Yufeng Shen1; Robert Suter1; 1Carnegie Mellon University
    The properties of porosity within AM powder will affect the quality of final product. A 3-D segmentation and analysis method based on machine learning approach was developed to analyze the porosity and size distribution of AM powders. Powders and pores are segmented and recognized in three dimensional volume data to increase accuracy. Valuable statistical information can be extracted to evaluate the quality of AM powder. This will give a quantitative guide for the selection of AM powder for manufacturing. Same technique could be applied to other 3D dataset to extend the application.

P-2: 3D Multigrain Crystallography for Detection and Discrimination of Secondary Phases in Cu2ZnSnS4 for Thin Film Solar Cell Applications: Mariana Mar Lucas1; Henning Poulsen1; Jens Andreasen1; 1Technical University of Denmark
     Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) is a polycrystalline material for thin film solar cell applications. A CZTS layer typically presents secondary phases that form due to a thermodynamic equilibrium and the stoichiometry condition (Cu-poor, Zn-rich). They are difficult to identify, and thus, to quantify because of the similarity of their lattice parameters. This represents a major challenge to the common characterization techniques, i.e. XRD, Raman.[1] Multigrain crystallography provides structural characterization of polycrystalline materials. Utilizing 3D X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy, 3D maps of the grains can be generated visualizing their morphology, orientations, and strains. [2] By applying 3DXRD and using the latest indexing algorithms, it is intended to identify and quantify the secondary phases in CZTS films. References: [1] Berg, D. M. et al., Thin Solid Films 569, 113–123 (2014).[2] Poulsen, H. F., . J. Appl. Crystallogr. 45, 1084–1097 (2012).

P-3: 3D Recrystallization Studies of Aluminium Studied by Dark Field X-ray Microscopy: Mustafacan Kutsal1; Phil Cook1; Can Yildirim1; Carsten Detlefs1; Henning Poulsen2; 1European Synchrotron Radiation Facility; 2Technical University of Denmark
    Three-dimensional studies of recrystallization in metals have generally been carried out by serial sectioning. Two-dimensional techniques such as optical or electron microscopy provide images or diffraction maps. These are then assembled in post processing to form 3D reconstructions. Clearly, such approaches cannot be used in situ and may suffer from surface modifications due to sectioning. Here, we present the use of Dark Field X-ray microscopy to track recrystallization in aluminium in situ. The technique employs Bragg diffraction of hard X-rays from individual deformed or recrystallized grains inside the 3D volume and provides real-space information by using an x-ray objective lens. This enables us to track transformations on a single grain inside the 3D volume with high angular and spatial resolution. Initial results on 3D mapping of subgrains, structure evolution during dissolution of deformed grains, and strain and misorientation relations in recrystallized grains will be presented.

P-4: 3D Visualization of Pores in Ti-6Al-4V Samples Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting Method with Heterogeneous Nucleation Site Particles: Yoshimi Watanabe1; Masafumi Sato1; Tadachika Chiba1; Hisashi Sato1; Naoko Sato2; Shizuka Nakano2; 1Nagoya Institute of Technology; 2National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST)
    It is reported that the presence of defects dominates high cycle fatigue life in additively manufactured samples, where most fatigue cracks nucleate exclusively at pores rather than at other microstructural features. In our previous studies, effect of TiC heterogeneous nucleation site particles on microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V samples manufactured by selective laser melting (SLM) method was studied. It was found that the density of Ti-6Al-4V samples could be increased by addition of TiC particles, since uniform microstructure and suppression of pore formation could be achieved by heterogeneous solidification with heterogeneous nucleation site particles. In this study, the size, volume fraction and spatial distribution of the pores in Ti-6Al-4V samples, manufactured by SLM method with TiC heterogeneous nucleation site particles, have been characterized in 3D using x-ray computed tomography (XCT).

P-5: Application of Finite-element Crystal Plasticity for the Modeling of Microstructure Fragments of Titanium Alloys and Its Deformation Processes: Andrey Musienko1; 1NRC «Kurchatov Institute» - CRISM «Prometey»
     Recently virtual schema based on observations of material microstructure realized using computer. Internet made them available. Author was interested in finite element plasticity of crystals, virtual aggregate of 27 Voronoď polyhedrons was seen for example. Creation of the virtual models is replaced by questions of usefulness of their application in materials science. For (α+β) titanium alloys different microstructures are observed. Interested in mechanical stresses and deformations, possible to carry out computation with finite-element method, digitizing images of a microstructure. One can consider crystallographic orientations corresponding to really measured.Formation of virtual structures based on real images, and synthetic ones is possible. We have functional tool for virtual experiments. Possible to discuss particular structures, also comparing of different structures on the basis of uniform criterion is available. One can give both examples in present work.

P-6: Automated Extraction of 3D Geometrical Features of Microstructure of Low Carbon Steel: Yuki Arisato1; Junya Inoue1; 1The University of Tokyo
    For structure-property relationships of materials, quantifying 3D microstructures is crucial, and serial sectioning has been widely utilized to construct the whole 3D microstructure. Usually, segmentation is applied to extract the shape and the distribution of individual microstructures. Supervised segmentation algorithms, in which all the microstructure is labeled beforehand, have been applied to 2D sectional images in most of the previous studies, but have a critical problem in the case of steel. That is, appearances of the microstructures, such as bainite and martensite, change drastically when their crystal orientations change, which make difficult for even an experienced researcher to identify the microstructures, and also increase drastically the number of training data set. In the present study, several unsupervised segmentation algorithms were applied to a 3D image of low carbon steel. Not only textural and statistical features in 2D sectional images but also 3D structural features were taken into account.

P-7: Characterization of Deformation Mechanisms in Polymer and Composite Materials Via Three Dimensional X-ray Imaging and Diffraction: Maxime Pelerin1; Henry Proudhon1; Lucien Laiarinandrasana1; Andrew King2; Jean-Paul Itié2; 1MINES ParisTech - PSL Research University - Centre des Matériaux CNRS UMR 7633; 2Synchrotron SOLEIL
     PEKK (Poly-Ether-Ketone-Ketone) is a high-performance semi-crystalline polymer material developed by Arkema. The crystalline phase is crucial for maintaining mechanical strength with increasing temperature. Several key parameters such as degree of crystallinity and crystalline phase, polymer chain orientation, crystallite fragmentation, porosity... are determinant for mechanical properties and lifetime. The understanding of the evolution of these parameters during deformation is fundamental for better lifetime predictions and the design of polymers and polymer-based composites.We have used synchrotron tomography and diffraction techniques to study damage processes in PEKK and PEKK-based short carbon fibre composites during in situ mechanical testing. Phase Contrast Tomography (PCT) allows the study of porosity and cavitation once pores reach a sufficient size, but this corresponds to a very advanced state of damage. Prior microstructural changes could be revealed by diffraction, and two different approaches were tested to obtain spatially-resolved data: energy-dispersive diffraction and diffraction-tomography.

P-8: Combination of 3D and 2D Experimental Methods to Characterize Recrystallization Kinetics: Dorte Juul Jensen1; Fengxiang Lin2; Yubin Zhang1; 1Technical University of Denmark; 2Universite Catholique de Louvain
    The aim of this poster is to demonstrate how the understanding of recrystallization kinetics can be significantly improved by not only using one experimental technique (3D or 2D) but combining 3 complementary techniques. The 3 techniques are post mortem EBSP, in-situ 3DXRD and ex-situ SEM investigations and the material studied is 90% cold rolled copper. It is shown that the recrystallizing grains generally experience a fast growth to a limiting size, which is not due to impingements with other recrystallizing grains. The significant decrease in growth rates shortly after nucleation is shown to relate to a non-uniform migration behavior determined by the variations in the deformed microstructure. The implications of these results on the sample averaged kinetics and advancing recrystallization modelling are presented. The importance of combining the different experimental techniques is discussed and ideas for future 3D laboratory x-ray studies of recrystallization using LabDCT are finally presented

P-10: Development of New High Energy Diffraction Microscopy Instrument at the Advanced Photon Source: Robert Suter1; Sangid Michael2; Ashley Spear3; Aaron Stebner4; 1Carnegie Mellon University; 2Purdue University; 3University of Utah; 4Colorado School of Mines
    The U.S. National Science Foundation has funded a consortium based project (including the authors' institutions) to develop a new high throughput, high energy x-ray diffraction microscope (HEDM) instrument at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. The instrument should come on-line in 2019 and will be available to the general user community. It will be capable of near-field and far-field HEDM as well as computed tomography; sample environments will include room and high temperature (in gas atmospheres), and potentially other user developed compact systems. A significant effort will go into a tailored computing environment (in Python) that will control data collection and will stream data to computing resources for reduction of diffraction image sets to useful microscope outputs. This poster will describe the instrument development project.

P-11: Elastic Interaction between Twins during Tensile Deformation of Austenitic Stainless Steel: Jette Oddershede1; Nicolai Juul2; Grethe Winther2; 1Xnovo Technology; 2Technical University of Denmark
     In austenite, the twin boundary normal is a common elastically stiff direction shared by the two twins, which may induce special interactions. This elastic interaction has been analysed and compared to grains separated by conventional grain boundaries. The 3D morphology of grains and twins in a 0.7x0.7x0.5 mm3 316L austenite sample was measured in the undeformed state. The neighbour relations derived from this map were used to interpret the grain-averaged (Type-II) stress tensors measured after 0.12% tensile deformation at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source.It was found that the components of the Type-II stress normal to the twin boundary plane exhibit the same large variations as for the conventional grain boundaries. Elastic grain interactions are therefore complex and must involve the entire set of neighbouring grains. The elastic-regime stress along the tensile direction qualitatively depends on the grain orientation, but grain-to-grain variations are large.

P-12: Feasibility Study of Dark-field Strain Microscopy: Hanna Leemreize1; Erik Knudsen1; Per Christensen2; Nikolaj Zangenberg2; Henning Poulsen2; 1Technical University of Denmark; 2Danish Technological Institute
     Uncontrolled residual stresses in industrial devices can build up causing fatigue and failure. The formation and development of these stresses are poorly understood, in part because of the lack of efficient characterization techniques. A better understanding of these processes can elongate the life span of components, give more efficient component design and better materials properties. In this study, we prove the feasibility of a new technique that enables mapping of 3D strains within samples in a non-destructive and efficient manner.A combination of two optical components are used as a strain filter – a focusing lens with a slit system in its back focal point, BFP. By placing these in the diffracted beam, a direct image of the sample is formed with intensity in the regions where the given strain state is present. By scanning the slits in the BFP we can now map the strain in a tomographic manner.

P-13: Large 3D-EBSD Dataset Acquisition for Stochastic Modeling of Microstructures by Random Marked Tessellations: Jaromír Kopecek1; Jarmila Remiášová1; Ladislav Klimša1; Jakub Staněk2; Viktor Beneš2; Lucas Petrich3; Daniel Westhoff3; Carl Krill3; Volker Schmidt3; 1Institute of Physics of CAS; 2Charles University; 3Ulm University
    Random marked tessellation models have proven their usefulness in gaining deeper understanding of polycrystalline microstructures, which are important to processes like grain growth. However, the formulation of physically relevant tessellation models relies on the availability of highly resolved 3D data sets acquired from real materials. To this end, we have utilized 3D-EBSD to characterize samples of the superplastic aluminum alloy Al-3Mg-0.2Sc, which were subjected to 4 or 8 passes of equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) in order to obtain grains small enough for conventional 3D-EBSD with a Ga focused ion beam (FIB). For purposes of comparison, Xe-plasma FIB milling was also carried out on these specimens, which enlarged the scanned volume by an order of magnitude. The data from both devices—FEI Quanta and TESCAN FERA3—were processed and analyzed using the software package DREAM.3D. The resulting reconstructions serve as the basis for identifying random marked tessellation models that are suitable for representing the sample microstructures.

P-14: Manufacture of Rubber Asphalt Mixtures with Local Materials: Guilliana Agudelo Buitrag1; 1Universidad de Antioquia
    This work shows the results of mixing asphalt 60/70 with wet rubber powder. Rubber is a by-product of recycled tires in Colombia. The main objectives are to reduce the negative impact of discarded tires in the city and manufacture a competitive asphalt with this material. A total of 15 mixtures with rubber contents ranging from 10 to 20% were prepared. The characterization of the materials involved is presented (microstructural and chemical) by optical and electronic microscopy techniques; and chemical composition tests. In addition, various mechanical and performance tests are included on the samples made. This work has a potential great environmental and economic impact in Colombia.

P-15: Modeling and Analyzing the Microstructure Evolution of SOFC Anodes During Operation: Matthias Wieler1; Patricia Haremski1; Paul Hoffrogge2; Daniel Schneider2; Britta Nestler2; Florian Wankmüller3; André Weber3; Matthias Meffert3; Heike Störmer3; Thorsten Dickel4; Piero Lupetin1; 1Robert Bosch GmbH; 2Hochschule Karlsruhe; 3Karlsruhe Institute of Technology; 4RJL Micro & Analytic GmbH
     An important degradation mechanism in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is the microstructural evolution of Ni-YSZ anodes under operating conditions caused by diffusional transport of nickel. In this work, we combine experiments and simulations in order to investigate and model these microstructural changes in a novel full-ceramic co-sintered SOFC.Goal of the study is to develop a phase-field model that incorporates all transport mechanisms relevant for anode degradation: volume diffusion, interface diffusion, and grain boundary movement. The material parameters required for the model are determined via thermal grooving experiments on bicrystalline and polycrystalline nickel. To obtain the initial microstructure for the simulation and to validate the simulation results, we analyze the 3D microstructure of newly fabricated and aged specimens with FIB-SEM, nano-CT, and EBSD-EDXS. Finally, the impact of anode degradation on the performance of the SOFC is evaluated.

P-16: Real-time Synchrotron Imaging of Silicic Magma Degassing: Insights into Bubble Nucleation and Growth Kinetics during Controlled Heating: Rafael Torres-Orozco1; Nolwenn Le Gall1; Mathew Pankhurst1; Biao Cai1; Robert Atwood2; Sara Nonni1; Peter Lee1; 1Manchester X-ray Imaging Facility; 2Diamond Light Source
    Synchrotron x-ray imaging has enhanced the understanding of magma degassing processes. Here, we present novel, time-resolved (4D) synchrotron microtomography (I12 beamline, Diamond Light Source, UK) of vesiculation in water-bearing (<1 wt.%) silicic melts, under isothermal and non-isothermal during heating (from 850 to 1250 °C) at constant rate (0.4 or 0.1 °C s-1) and ambient pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that bubble nucleation is typically delayed until high temperatures prompt lower melt viscosity. Nucleation is followed by rapid bubble growth, bubble coalescence, and the formation of permeable channels in the inner part of the samples due to water diffusion outside of the melt. This morphology of permeable foam facilities outgassing, and has previously been associated with effusive and/or low explosive volcanic eruptions. These observations provide a pathway for future step-change 4D experiments under controlled pressures, elucidating degassing phenomena, crucial for understanding eruptive styles and intensities during eruptions of different magnitude and composition.

P-17: Single Grain Characterisation at the HEMS-Beamline: Torben Fischer1; Lars Lottermoser1; Norbert Schell1; Peter Staron1; Martin Müller1; 1Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht
    The 3D investigation of polycrystalline materials allows the study of the relationship between macroscopic and micro structural properties at the level of single grains. A main objective is the measurement of the grain boundary topology, orientation gradients, and 3D strain state between single grains during deformation. The High Energy Materials Science Beamline (HEMS), operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht (HZG), has a dedicated hutch for such 3D techniques. HEMS is situated at synchrotron storage ring PETRA III at DESY and has a tuneable energy range between 35 and 200 keV. The main scientific topics addressed are the investigation of new processes, metallurgy, chemistry and material physics. The grain mapper is an dedicated endstation for the 3D-XRD technique. Fast detector systems and high photon flux allow for highly dynamic investigations, e.g. of phase transformation or catalysis. The instrument is now in user operation. First results of material science experiments will be shown.

P-18: The Dark-field X-ray Microscope at ID06: Carsten Detlefs1; 1ESRF
    We present a new instrument for dark-field x-ray microscopy installed on beamline ID06 of the ESRF. Dark-field x-ray microscopy is a new way of three-dimensionally (3D) mapping lattice strain and orientation in crystalline matter. It is analogous to dark-field electron microscopy in that an objective lens magnifies diffracting features of the sample. The use of high-energy synchrotron x-rays, however, means that these features can be large and deeply embedded. The spatial and angular resolution can reach 100 nm and 0.001°, respectively. The instrument furthermore allows pre-characterization of samples at larger length scales using 3DXRD or DCT, such that a region of interest such as a single grain can be selected for high-resolution studies without the need to dismount the sample. This ability to directly characterize complex, multi-scale phenomena in situ is a key step towards formulating and validating multi-scale models that account for the entire heterogeneity of materials.

P-19: The Effect of Surface Roughness on the Fatigue Life of Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V Components: Gregory Lamb1; Oluwatobi Kalejaiye1; Cynthia Waters1; 1North Carolina A&T State University
    Additive Manufacturing (AM) is becoming one of the most influential manufacturing technologies of the 21st century, with its capabilities of rapid prototyping and design versatility sweeping the industry by storm. Despite this, a major hindrance to the technology is part validation, as material properties are machine specific. Most AM processes use a layer-by-layer buildup of material to manufacture components, causing the outermost layer to remain in sintered powder form. This phenomenon causes poor surface finishing, adding surface roughness as a function of the powder size used. The purpose of our research is determining the effects this surface roughness has on the fatigue life of a ASTM E466-15 derived Ti-6Al-4V fatigue test specimen. Using the fatigue testing capabilities of Abaqus, we will model conditions and surface finishes from various machines; gaining valuable insights into the characterization of these variables and how to use them to validate AM components in the industry.

P-20: The Synthesis and Characterization of Ca and Al Doped Lanthanum Manganite Coated Porous SiC Foams for Syngas Production Processes: Mohammad Saadatfar1; Amir Masoud Parvanian2; Hamidreza Salimijazi2; 1Australian National University; 2Isfahan University of Technology
    Solar assisted hydrocarbon fuel production through the conversion of CO2-H2O mixture to CO-H2, a process known as syngas fuel production is a promising method of renewable energy production and supply. Materials such as Calcium and Aluminum doped lanthanum manganite (LCMA) have shown a great yield of conversion in syngas production processes. We combine high thermo-chemical conversion efficiency of LCMA with excellent mass and heat transfer capabilities of porous ceramics to increase the overall conversion efficiency. Characterization of pore morphology and coating homogeneity on the porous networks were performed using an x-ray computed tomography techniques. Our results show a strong dependency of coating thickness and homogeneity with the intrinsic properties of the porous network. We show that wider pore size distribution and the presence of larger pores result in a more effective coating and better connectedness of the coated layer, which in turn result in higher performance of surface-based catalytic processes.

P-22: 3D Characteristics of Porosity in Additive-manufactured Titanium Alloys and Their Influence on Mechanical Properties: Shaogang Wang1; Lei Zhang1; 1Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    Additive Manufacturing techniques such as selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) could build titanium components for medical and aerospace applications. In this work, full dense Ti–6Al–4V samples were fabricated by using EBM and SLM. 3D X-ray tomography (XRT) technique was employed to find 3D features of defects as pore distribution difference etc. Varied mechanism of defect formation was proposed. Unexpected 3D characteristics were also revealed and their influence on tensile strength and fatigue property were compared. In comparison with full dense Ti–6Al–4V alloys, porous structures of Ti2448 produced by EBM and SLM were also investigated. The effect of pore features on compression and fatigue properties were discussed. Tuning scan speed of heating source beams affected the porosity as size and amount, which influence the stress response of porous Ti2448.

P-23: 3D Dislocation Structure in Proton Irradiated Singe Grains of Polycrystalline Zirconium: Matthew Topping1; Gyula Zilahi2; Sandeep Irukuvarghula1; Gábor Ribárik2; Alistair Garner1; Peter Kenesei3; Philipp Frankel1; Michael Preuss1; Tamás Ungár1; 1Materials Performance Centre, The University of Manchester; 2Eötvös University Budapest; 3Argonne National Laboratory
    Integrity of fuel cladding Zr structures is a key issue in power generating nuclear reactors. Long term radioactivity makes it difficult to determine irradiation induced damage in neutron irradiated Zr. Short-lived activation and similar damage structure make proton irradiated Zr excellent surrogates for neutron irradiated Zr. Irradiation in Zr alloys produces dislocation loops, characterized by electron microscopy or X-ray diffraction. X-ray powder diffraction proves to be a powerful method to characterize average properties of dislocation loops. However, proton irradiation, unlike neutron irradiation, is unidirectional due to the beam line. Therefore, the inherent anisotropy of hcp Zr raises the question to what extent grain orientation and depth influences the grain-to-grain dislocation structure in proton irradiated Zr. We will show that 3D high angular resolution single grain diffraction experiments carried out at the 1-ID beamline of APS synchrotron at ANL can help concluding about similarities and differences between neutron and proton irradiation.

P-24: 3D Intergranular Crack Growth Modeling in Ceramics: Emile Renner1; François Guillet1; Rafael Estevez2; Cristian Ovalle2; 1CEA Le Ripault; 2Grenoble Alpes University
    Ceramics are brittle materials where the most critical default drives the cracks initiation. Some ceramics are prone to slow crack growth (SCG) which leads to failure at load levels lower than their critical toughness. Experimental tests can be conducted on polycrystalline samples in various conditions to study how SCG kinetics affects toughness. However, it is complicated to take into account all aspects of a given ceramic to predict its lifetime, especially for complex loading and geometries. Thus, we propose a 3D finite element model (FEM) of the material microstructure representative elementary volume, considering the SCG kinetics. The polycrystalline microstructure model must respect the porosity and the grain size distribution. A 3D cohesive zone model for intergranular SCG is developed at the SIMaP laboratory. The fracture is then studied through mechanical tests as uniaxial tensile, 4 points bending and double-torsion, built using FEM and simulation results are confronted with experimental ones.

P-25: 3D X-ray Diffraction Microscopy (3DXRD) Using High Resolution X-ray Nanodiffraction: Hergen Stieglitz1; Christina Krywka1; Martin Müller1; 1Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht
     The existing technology called 3DXRD, is a well-established technique to map the grain structure of polycrystalline systems. Due to a given beamsize and limits of the reconstruction software only a few grains can be tracked, resulting in a minimum mappable grainsize. The planned experiment shall utilize a nano-focused synchrotron beam (e.g. Nanofocus Endstation of P03, PETRA III) to examine very fine-grained systems. With respect to the small beamsize of about 100 nm cross section, the precise positioning of the sample becomes more important to secure grains to be in a constant scanned volume to avoid mistakes while reconstructing. To meet this challenge a stable and wobble-free rotary stage is planned to ensure a constant gauge volume. We want to use an interferomenter-based feedback loop to compensate the runout of the sample with a XY-stage. A further step is the adjustment of the software for the needs of a nano-focused beam.

P-27: A 3D Coupled Approach for Fatigue Life Prediction of Titanium Aluminides: Fom Experimental Observations to Polycrystalline Calculation: Louise Toualbi1; Pierre Serrano1; Pascale Kanoute1; Alain Couret2; 1ONERA - The French Aerospace Lab; 2CNRS
     Deformation of TiAl alloys is strongly influenced by local microstructure, which can lead to non-negligible strain localizations. In this paper we propose an approach combining in-situ tensile tests, 3D-reconstructed microstructure and calculation on polycrystals. The aim of this work is to assess the model response in terms of slip activity and stress concentration. A Digital Image Correlation analysis is performed on in-situ tensile tests to measure local strain fields. The cyclic behaviour of various microstructures, characterized by grain size, volume fraction and lamellae size, is studied. In parallel, a polycrystalline calculation constructed within a crystal plasticity framework is developed. Correlation with experimental data is made using 3D-reconstruction from EBSD maps. The results obtained at this scale are compared to the macroscopic response given by the multiscale constitutive behavior model developed at the ONERA. These results are used to propose a microstructure sensitive fatigue model for TiAl alloys.

P-28: Advanced FIB-SEM Tomography Including 3D Analytics like EDS and EBSD: Tobias Volkenandt1; Fabián Pérez-Willard1; Michael Rauscher1; 1Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH
    Material characterization studies often require 3D investigations at high resolution in all three dimensions. FIB-SEM tomography is a well-established technique to provide this. Especially since it can be combined with analytical techniques like EDS or EBSD to provide not only visual but also analytical information about the volume of interest. However, until now there has been a gap between the ideal imaging conditions and those ideal for the analytic mapping. We will present latest improvements to our advanced FIB-SEM workflow that allow automated switching of working conditions (such as acceleration voltage or beam current) during the acquisition. This leads to image stacks of best resolution in all dimensions together with 3D analytical data of highest quality. Exemplary results obtained from different types of samples will illustrate the workflow and prove that it is no longer necessary to sacrifice SEM resolution when adding analytics to a FIB-SEM tomography.

P-30: Analysis of Thermal and Mechanical Responses of Porous Materials: Jaehyung Cho1; Geon Young Lee1; Kyu Jung Yeom1; Jong Joo Rha1; 1Korea Institute of Materials Science
    Microstructure with various pore structures was modeled using 3-dimensional CAD and its thermal and mechanical responses were analyzed using FE analysis. Various factors such as porosity, pore shape and its spatial distributions were considered to investigate thermal and mechanical responses. Overall, thermal conductivity decreased with increase in porosity. Elastic modulus also decreased with porosity. Anisotropic distribution of pore structure affected thermal and mechanical responses.

P-31: Assessment of Hydrogen Embrittlement through 3D Strain Visualization in Aluminum Alloys: Hang Su1; Kazuyuki Shimizu1; Md. Shahnewaz Bhuiyan1; Hiroyuki Toda1; Kentaro Uesugi2; Akihisa Takeuchi2; Yoshio Watanabe3; 1Kyushu University; 2JASRI; 3UACJ Corporation
    Microstructural features tracking and related 3D strain visualization techniques are useful to understand the relationships between microstructures and localized heterogeneous deformation inside material. Hydrogen induced localized strain concentration, as well as the initiation and propagation of hydrogen induced quasi-cleavage crack in the strain localization region are discussed through measuring 3D strain distribution at low applied strain levels. By applying hydrogen trapping analysis, effects of hydrogen trap sites such as dislocations, nano voids and intermetallic particles on the hydrogen migration, accumulation and partitioning behaviors in the strain localization region are studied. It has been confirmed that 3D strain visualization technique and hydrogen trapping analysis make visualization of localized hydrogen partitioning possible in three dimensions in aluminum alloys.

P-32: Characterization of Powder Al Alloys and the Effects of Thermal Processing, in Three Dimension: Caitlin Walde1; Danielle Cote1; Richard Sisson1; Victor Champagne2; 1WPI; 2US Army Research Laboratory
    Gas-atomized metallic powders are commonly used in solid-state additive manufacturing processes. While their post-process consolidated properties are widely studied, there is little research on the properties of the powders before consolidation. Understanding the powder characteristics before use in additive manufacturing could lead to fine-tuning properties of additively manufactured materials. As powder properties and characteristics differ greatly from their wrought counterparts, it is important to fully understand the unique structure of these powders. This research characterizes three-dimensionally the grain structure and secondary phases of aluminum alloy powders after various thermal processes. This is accomplished through the use of a serial sectioning technique that combines SEM images and EBSD results of numerous planes throughout the powder particles. Secondary phases are further analyzed using TEM/STEM and DSC.

P-34: Characterizing Structure-property Relationships in Aluminum-carbon Hybrid Materials: Christopher Shumeyko1; Daniel Cole1; Xiaoxiao Ge2; Lourdes Salamanca-Riba2; 1US Army Research Laboratory; 2University of Maryland
    A class of metal-carbon hybrid materials deemed covetics, have exhibited advantageous mechanical, thermal, and electrical properties in recent years. While this class of materials have promising applications ranging from the aerospace industry to power transmission, there remain great gaps in their process-structure-property relationships. In this work, we utilize molecular dynamics simulations and nanoindentation experiments to elucidate the effect of microstructure on the mechanical response of aluminum covetic materials. Specifically, the role and properties of Al-C interfaces are investigated, including the nature of bonding which give covetic materials superior thermodynamic stability. Materials characterization through EELS, Raman Spectroscopy, TEM, and XPS provides a framework for computational models, while simulations aim to guide future processing techniques for scalability and stability of covetics.

P-39: Effect of Powder Recycling and HIP-treatment Improvement on Titanium Parts Manufactured by Arcam EBM: Vladimir Popov1; Alexander Katz-Demyanetz1; Andrey Garkun1; Menachem Bamberger1; 1Technion - Israel Institute of Technology
     Electron beam melting (EBM) is a well-known effective manufacturing process. However, the priority of proper non-porosity microstructure and relevant mechanical properties is still a challenge for main applications of Titanium Additive Manufacturing including EBM, such as airspace industry and medical implants production. Thus, quality of the powder and standardization of the AM process come to the front. The influence of Ti-6Al-4V powder recycling, the reasonable number of cycles, the requirements to recycling procedures, possible post processing procedures – are still open issues. Aiming to answer these questions, we evaluate two same cylinder sets, printed one from recycled powder and one another from the new powder batch. Moreover, the effect of Hot Isostatic Pressure (HIP) treatment was investigated, to clarify the possibilities of this treatment to improve microstructure and mechanical properties of the parts manufactured from highly re-used powder.Samples from the new and re-used powder were examined before and after HIP.

P-42: In-situ Synchrotron X-ray Diffraction and Digital Image Correlation Study on Stress-induced Martensitic Transformation of a NiTi Subjected to Monotonic Uniaxial Tension: Xiaohui Bian1; Ahmed Saleh1; Peter Lynch2; Azdiar Gazder1; Christopher Davies3; Elena Pereloma1; 1University of Wollongong; 2Deakin University; 3Monash University
    In-situ monotonic uniaxial tensile test using synchrotron X-ray diffraction and digital image correlation were conducted on a superelastic NiTi. The diffraction data from the sample centre over the tensile test was collected. In addition, the diffraction data along the gauge length at five selected strains was acquired. In this way, the localised stress-induced austenite-martensite transformation can be visualised from both macroscopic and microscopic views. During localisation the specimen is divided into untransformed region, transformed region, and transformation band front (with both phases). The lattice strain, peak width of individual grain families, phase volume fractions and stress-induced martensitic texture, and strain fields, strain rate distributions were studied. These parameters keep unchanged in the untransformed and transformed regions, whereas they vary within the narrow transformation front. Therefore, the strain state and loading partitioning in (retained) austenite and martensite within the transformation front, and their relation to the transformation mechanism are discussed.

P-43: Integral Mean Curvature Analysis of Normal Grain Growth Using Diffraction Contrast Tomography: Catherine Sahi1; Jun Sun2; Allan Lyckegaard2; Burton Patterson1; Yubin Zhang3; Florian Bachman2; Nicolas Gueninchault2; Hrishikesh Bale4; Dorte Juul Jensen3; Robert DeHoff1; 1University of Florida; 2Xnovo Technology; 3Technical University of Denmark; 4Carl Zeiss X-ray Microscopy Inc.
    The growth rate of individual grains of Armco iron was found to be linearly related to their integral mean curvature Ms as predicted by the recent DeHoff model, with zero curvature near 14 faces. Growth rates were determined by comparison of individual grain volumes over incremental anneal times and their Ms values determined by the innie-outtie technique performed on voxelated 3D images. The 3D images for these measurements were obtained by laboratory diffraction contrast tomography (LabDCT) analysis. In a related study of Ms during particle pinning, the boundary curvature was monitored before, throughout particle interaction and breakaway and after static pinning. Evolution of the measured curvature was observed as the boundary evolved through a range of complex shapes to maintain the necessary contact angle with the particle. The little-noted fact that the average boundary curvature, i.e., the driving force for motion, approaches zero at static pinning was observed.

P-45: Large Volume 3D Characterization of Graphite Microstructures in Nodular Cast Iron by Plasma FIB: Juan Carlos Hernando1; Doru Michael Stefanescu2; Ehsan Ghassemali1; Jiří Dluhoš3; Hana Tesařová4; Martin Sláma4; Attila Diószegi1; 1Jönköping University; 2Ohio State University and University of Alabama; 3TESCAN ORSAY HOLDING, s.r.o., Czech Republic; 4TESCAN ORSAY HOLDING, a.s., Czech Republic
    Material properties in cast components are principally determined by the microstructures developed during the solidification process. The complexity of these microstructures made 3D tools indispensable for an accurate characterization and analysis of these phases. Cast iron microstructures usually exceed the size suitable for a 3D analysis within a reasonable time and a fine resolution, making the use of the current 3D techniques scarce in the literature of this material. In this work, the application of Xe-Ion plasma focused ion beam (FIB) tomography to large volumes up to 200 µm3, provided information of the spatial arrangement and internal structure of the graphite nodules. The 3D analysis revealed the presence of Fe-rich inclusions embedded within the radial carbon sections of the nodule, suggesting different growth mechanisms during the solidification. These results confirm the existence of three different graphite nodules populations in nodular cast iron, as suggested in recent literature using 2D investigations.

P-46: Lattice Structure Optimization for Thermal Insulation: From Design to Multi-scale Characterization: Sylvain Chupin1; Yohann Scaringella - Guerritat1; 1CEA
     Super-insulating materials (material with better thermal properties than air) are mechanically very fragile. Generally, the insulating part of the material is made by a nanoporous silica matrix (extremely low mechanical strength) and the mechanical structure is insured by glass fibers dispersed within this matrix. The goal of our study is to replace the glass fibers by an optimal structure that gives a better mechanical behavior without degrading the thermal properties. To reach this goal, topological optimization is used to find the lattice structure giving the best thermal and mechanical compromise. These structures are made using the stereolithography additive manufacturing process.Therefore, the results are highly dependant of the local properties of the solid elements. Multi-scale characterizations are made from the lattice element (~50 µm) to the material (~2 mm). This experiments are used to understand process/properties relations and to improve the optimization structure generation.

P-47: Local 3D Fiber Orientation Analysis for Fiber Reinforced Composite Materials: Dascha Dobrovolskij1; Katja Schladitz1; 1Fraunhofer ITWM
     Glass fiber reinforced composite materials are popular due to their light weight advantages. These composite materials are frequently used in various applications. A proper design of technical components requires the entire knowledge about the material microstructure. We present here recent image processing results regarding the fiber orientation estimation in 3D images acquired by X-ray computed tomography. State-of-the-art methods for gray value based orientation estimation do not require single fiber segmentation. It was shown, that methods based on first or second order gray value derivatives are reliable and robust w.r.t. noise. Here, we report on additional experiments to evaluate the influence of the resolution, the fiber volume fraction, and the preprocessing on the quality of the orientation estimation. Moreover, the influence of the averaging for computing second order orientation tensors isexamined, too.

P-48: Local Thermal Residual Elastic Strains in Ductile Cast Iron Measured Using Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction: Yubin Zhang1; Tito Andriollo1; Sřren Fćster1; Ruqing Xu2; Rosa Barabash3; Jesper Thorborg1; Jesper Hattel1; Dorte Juul Jensen1; 1Technical University of Denmark; 2Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory; 3Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Ductile cast iron (DCI) has good combination of strength, ductility and fracture toughness, thanks to its composite microstructure, consisting of spherical graphite nodules (GNs) embedded in steel matrix. During manufacturing, the differences in the thermal expansion coefficients between the matrix and GN lead to local thermal residual strains/stresses. To optimize the design and processing of DCI components, more knowledge about the magnitude of the local residual strains/stresses is required. In this work, synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction is used to characterize microstructure and local residual strains around several GNs with different sizes in two ferritic DCIs manufactured using a permanent and sand molds. The results show that the local residual strains are mainly compressive, exhibiting gradients with maxima of 6.0-9.9×10^-4 near the GNs and decreasing into the matrix. The results are compared with those predicted from finite element modeling and discussed in relation to the GN size and cooling rate.

P-50: Methods of Visualization of Defects of Aluminum and Copper Wires: Beata Smyrak1; 1AGH University of Science & Technology
     The detection of internal material defects is one of the most important problems of modern industry. The choice of detection method depends on the shape and geometry of the product, type of material, type of defects, orientation and location of defects (internal defects, surface defects, subsurface), size of defects (eg minimum detected, minimum acceptable). The research system must be adapted to the shape of the element, its dimensions and the research issues. The paper presents the characteristics of the deffects created during the process of drawing aluminum wires and copper wires in industrial conditions. The studies of drawing deffects have been carried out using scanning microscopy and computer tomography. Based on the results of the studies, among others, the identified deffects have been classified and reasons for their occurrence have been determined.

P-51: Micro-diffraction in 3D: Jon Tischler1; 1Argonne National Laboratory
    3D Mirco-diffraction employing both white and monochromatic x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) has been a valuable capability for the last 15 years. This talk will cover the current state of 3D micro-diffraction at the APS beam line 34-ID-E. It will also describe current activities studying the diffraction from materials with spatial resolutions under 400 nm. With the planned APS upgrade, the x-ray emittance should improve by a factor of 100, providing both higher intensities and smaller resolution, with a resolution goal of 100 nm. I will also discuss other enhancements that can improve both the speed and efficiency of data acquisition. This research used the Advanced Photon Source 34-ID, a US DoE Office of Science Facility operated by Argonne National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC02-06CH11357.

P-9: Development of a Solid Texture Synthesis Algorithm from Orthogonal 2D Exemplars: Tristan Ashton1; Donna Guillen1; William Harris2; Javier Morales3; 1Idaho National Laboratory; 2Massachusetts Institute of Technology; 3University of Texas, San Antonio
    The inverse problem of constructing 3D microstructures from 2D data is an area of active research within the materials science community. Fully deterministic volumetric reconstruction methods remain computationally expensive and relatively ill-defined. To circumvent these complications, we approach the problem from a statistical standpoint to reduce resource expenditure while maintaining reasonable fidelity to the source. We have implemented a computationally efficient algorithm in python using Fast Library for Approximate Nearest Neighbors (FLANN) to reconstruct the 3D features of interest in a given microstructure from three orthogonal 2D exemplars, benchmarked via histogram reweighting to avoid oversampling, and upsampling to preserve fine features. The algorithm is currently configured for two-phase materials and is being extended to accommodate multiple phases. Multithreading capability has been incorporated to provide a speedup of 80% over serial processing on a single compute node. The reconstructed microstructures are configured to ease of implementation in a finite-element method simulation.

P-53: Microscale Mechanisms of Tensile Deformation in Ductile Cast Iron Studied with FE Modelling and Digital Volume Correlation: Tito Andriollo1; Yubin Zhang1; Mathias Bjerre1; Sřren Fćster1; Jesper Thorborg1; Jesper Hattel1; 1Technical University of Denmark
    The mechanisms controlling the deformation of ductile cast irons at the micro-scale are not fully clear yet. The main reason is the complex material microstructure, which consists of graphite particles embedded in a steel matrix. The present work is the first attempt to combine FE modelling and digital volume correlation to analyze how these microstructural elements interact mechanically to determine the tensile properties at the macro-scale. First, a FE model based on a representative volume element obtained from micro computed tomography (μCT) is developed and used to simulate manufacture and tensile loading of ductile cast iron. Then, the model predictions are validated via digital volume correlation, based on μCT scans acquired in-situ during deformation. The results are used to shed light on the role of the micro-scale residual stresses – associated with the thermal contraction mismatch between the graphite and the matrix during manufacture – revealed recently by the authors.

P-54: Microstructural Evolution of a ScYSZ Electrolyte of a Solid Oxide Cell at High Polarization: José Xavier Trujillo1; Jacob Bowen1; Henning Poulsen1; Peter Jřrgensen1; Carsten Detlefs2; Phil Cook2; Hugh Simons1; Sonja Ahl1; Anders Jakobsen1; 1Technical University of Denmark; 2ESRF
    Solid oxide cells are promising systems in the field of energy production and storage. When operating in harsh working conditions in electrolysis mode they exhibit degradation processes such as electrolyte grain boundary void formation, resulting in a decrease of efficiency. In this work the microstructural evolution of the electrolyte, near the anode (simulating the electrolysis oxygen evolution electrode) is assessed in-operando in a symmetrical cell composed by scandia dopped yttria stabilized zirconia (ScYSZ) and lanthanum strontium manganate / YSZ as electrolyte and electrodes respectively at 700°C in air at a polarization of 2V. A compression of lattice parameter is observed close to the anode/electrolyte interface after 17 hours at operating conditions, attributable to oxygen pressure build up in grain boundary voids observed by post-mortem electron microscopy. Strain mapping performed by dark field X-ray microscopy revealed changes in strain domains on what we suspect are the initial stages of void formation.

P-55: Microstructure Characterization and Mechanical Analysis of Electron Beam Manufactured Ti6Al4V for Biomedical Application: Chen Di1; 1Shanghai Jiao Tong University
    Ti6Al4V has been widely used in medical treatment because of its good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. Additive manufacture, especially electron beam melting(EBM), has increasingly shown great potential for expanding the application of orthopedic implants in recent years for it can fabricate the parts individually, fast and costly. There are many studies on mechanical properties and microstructure of EBM-build parts while few of them notice that the difference in phase transformation and mechanical properties difference between thin wall or open cellar foam and bulk samples as well as. The α’ transformation takes place in the laminar samples with a higher cooling rate than that of bulk samples so that the hardness of block samples is about 348.87 ±15.51HVwhile the hardness of laminar samples is about 391.55 ±12.29HV which is 12% higher than that of block samples.

P-56: Microstructure Evolution with Convection: A 3-D Phase-field-lattice Boltzmann Study Coupled with the Parallel Adaptive-mesh-refinement Algorithm: Zhipeng Guo1; Ang Zhang1; Shaoxing Meng1; Jinglian Du1; Shoumei Xiong1; 1Tsinghua University
    A high performance numerical algorithm was developed to solve the 3-D phase-filed-lattice Boltzmann equations by combining adaptive mesh refinement and parallel computing. Results showed that this approach could improve the computational efficiency by 3 orders of magnitude without compromising any accuracy. The fluid flow was induced by the imposed external force including both gravity and/or a lateral force. Influenced by the fluid flow, both dendritic and eutectic microstructures presented altered morphologies due to the convection of the solute. The fluid flow could accelerate dendritic coarsening or promote freckle formation under different configurations of the external force. Both coarsening acceleration and freckle formation could induce significant dendritic fragmentation, which agreed well with these found in synchrotron X-ray radiography experiment for the Al-Cu alloy.

P-57: Multi-Scale 3D Digital Volume Correlation of 2D material Aerogel under Compression: Shelley Rawson1; Vildan Bayram1; Samuel McDonald1; Suelen Barg1; Philip Withers1; 1The University of Manchester
    Freeze cast aerogels are highly porous structures exhibiting thin, highly aligned sheets of material, arranged in distinct domains in which the sheets lie in different planes, with struts spanning between neighbouring sheets. These aerogels are being investigated for various applications including filters, directional insulation, energy storage and biomaterials. The aerogel can also be used as a scaffold for advanced composites by infiltration with a second phase. At present, little data exists on the relationship between structural architecture and mechanical properties of these materials. We present 3D digital volume correlation via X-ray Micro-CT time lapse imaging of a 2D material aerogel during in situ compressive loading. Correlative imaging at multiple scales demonstrates interaction between neighbouring sheets and struts at high resolution, and how this relates more globally to interaction between different domains. These data demonstrate the relationship between features on different length-scales and the resultant mechanical properties of the bulk material.

P-59: Rapid, Easy-to-use and Powerful Segmentation by Machine Learning: Tobias Volkenandt1; Stefanie Freitag1; Michael Rauscher1; 1Carl Zeiss Microscopy GmbH
    For materials characterization it is not sufficient to just acquire images. Whenever further analysis is intended to obtain quantitative information from the sample, segmentation becomes the important task. However, although it is a crucial step in the evaluation process, researchers still tend to do it manually. This leads to less reproducible data and longer time-to-result. Additionally it often relies on threshold-based approaches, which are limited in their range of application. To solve this problem we present a new segmentation module that enables not only image analysis experts but users of any skill-level to analyze their images and benefit from machine learning. The module is available for the ZEISS ZEN software and works on any kind of image data in 2D and 3D, may it stem from light, electron or x-ray microscopy. We will illustrate its power and ease of use on several materials science datasets.

P-60: Real Time Imaging of Microstructural Transformations in Bulk Ferroelectrics: Jeppe Ormstrup1; 1Technical University of Denmark
    Ferroelectrics are a broad class of functional materials with the ability to store electric charge, convert between electrical and mechanical work, and store digital memory states. Their functionality derives from the formation and dynamics of structural domains (i.e. twins), which nucleate, reorganize and annihilate under applied electric, thermal or mechanical loads. Characterizing these processes remains a persistent challenge due to the wide range of length (nm to mm) and time (µm to minutes) scales over which they occur. Here we present the use of Dark-Field X-ray Microscopy for directly imaging and tracking individual domains in real time during phase transformations and external perturbations. We describe the methodology and its application to study electric-field induced phase transitions in barium titanate. This capability to quantitatively correlate the structural dynamics to external boundary conditions is a key requirement for formulating and validating multi-scale models that account for the full heterogeneity of ferroelectric materials.

P-61: Scanning 3DXRD Technique with a Conical Slit: Yujiro Hayashi1; Tomoyuki Yoshida1; Daigo Setoyama1; 1Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.
    Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscopy is a non-destructive method of 3D orientation mapping in polycrystalline materials. One of the main problems of 3DXRD-based methods is diffraction spot overlap caused by plastic deformation. We have applied a conical slit to the scanning 3DXRD method to reduce the overlap by cutting diffractions from grains outside the gauge volume formed by the slit. Orientations are mapped in the gauge volume using a focused x-ray microbeam. The scanning 3DXRD technique with a conical slit has been tested for 10%-deformed low-carbon steel sheet samples with a grain size of 20μm and a cross sectional area of 1×1mm2. Orientations in such a highly deformed sample with a large number of grains in a cross section have been difficult to be reconstructed by 3DXRD-based methods. In our experiment, a 3D orientation map was successfully obtained using a conical slit forming a 300-μm-long gauge volume.

P-64: Three-dimensional Analysis for Distribution Change of Platelet Al3Ti Particles in Al-Al3Ti Composite Deformed by Asymmetric Rolling Process: Hisashi Sato1; Akihiro Mori1; Mariko Kitagawa1; Sarath Babu Duraisamy1; Tadachika Chiba1; Yoshimi Watanabe1; 1Nagoya Institute Of Technology
    Asymmetric rolling can introduce larger shear strain than symmetric rolling. Because of this, it is expected that the asymmetric rolling for metal-based composite containing platelet particles makes different particle distribution from the symmetric rolling. Especially, size, shape and orientation of the fragmented particles in the cold-rolled composite would be much different between the asymmetric rolling and the symmetric rolling. In this study, distribution change of platelet Al3Ti particles in Al-Al3Ti composite by the asymmetric rolling or the symmetric rolling is investigated using 3-dimensional visualization of Al3Ti particle. The size of the platelet Al3Ti particles in the asymmetric rolled Al-Al3Ti composite is smaller than that in the composite deformed by the symmetric rolling. The shape of the Al3Ti particles in the composites deformed by both rolling processes remains platelet shape. Also, it is found that the Al3Ti particles are preferentially fragmented along {112}Al3Ti.

P-65: Through-process Quantification of Additive Manufactured Industrial Parts Using X-ray Micro-tomography: Sheng Yue1; Peter Lee2; Chunlei Qiu3; Aymeric Beau1; Moataz Attallah3; Philip Withers2; 1North Star Imaging, UK; 2University of Manchester; 3University of Birmingham
     Powder bed additive manufacturing (AM) technologies have been growingly used to fabricate real life industrial parts. However, one remaining and critical challenge is to validate and qualify these parts for their intended functionalities in a cost and time efficient way. High resolution industrial X-ray microtomography has proven to be a powerful non-destructive tool to aid the design, process optimisation, quality control, and quality assurance in AM.Here, we first demonstrated how to optimise scanning modes and parameters to meet the time and resolution requirement for production. Using our bespoke program, more than 60,000 gas atomised metallic powders were scanned and quantified for the size and shape distribution, inclusion percentage, etc. For as-fabricated and final processed parts, key quality indicators, such as morphology descriptors, defects level and distribution, and 3D surface finishing quality and distribution were accurately and robustly obtained. Finally, an X-ray CT based through-process quality monitoring frame was proposed.

P-66: Use of Disposable Rulers for Measuring Slice Thickness during FIB Tomography: Helen Jones1; Kenneth Mingard1; David Cox1; 1National Physical Laboratory
     3D microstructural reconstructions from focussed ion beam milling usually assume uniform slice thicknesses. Measurements on artificial structures with known dimensions have shown that this is not the case. Fiducial markers can be used but require deposition and marking of features of known geometry but this can be time consuming and difficult to produce accurately each time. A process has been developed to “mass produce“ rulers on 100 nm silicon nitride films which can be quickly cut in the FIB and lifted into position with a micromanipulator. This paper will describe the development of the optimum geometry for the rulers using FIB deposition of multiple markers at 45degrees to the milled face and then discuss how this information has been applied with a lithography process to produce multiple rulers. Examples will be shown of the lift out and positioning of the pre-formed rulers for use with real life microstructures.

P-67: Visualisation and Measurement of Hardmetal Microstructures in 3D: Kenneth Mingard1; Bryan Roebuck1; Helen Jones1; Mark Stewart1; David Cox1; Mark Gee1; 1National Physical Laboratory
     Two phase Hardmetal microstructures have been well characterised in 2D and relationships, often only empirical, have been derived which relate key properties such as wear resistance to e.g. WC grain size. The question remains how representative the 2D relationships are of the true 3D structure and whether a 3D view would enable better visualisation and modelling of hardmetals’ properties.EBSD and FIB has been used to produce 3D reconstructions of several hardmetal grades and 2D and 3D grain size distributions of WC compared. A close correspondence between the two is observed if the smallest grain size fractions are excluded. Aspect ratios vary widely with size but false impressions of more needle like grains can be produced by neighbouring multiple particles of almost identical orientation. New insights into the continuous Co binder phase network have been obtained while the 3D shapes of WC grains can be related to their crystallographic orientation.

P-68: 3D Investigation on Colloidal Crystals by Synchrotron Radiation Phase-contrast Computed Tomography: Yanan Fu1; 1Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences
    The three dimensional (3D) void system of the colloidal crystal was noninvasively characterized by synchrotron radiation phase-contrast computed tomography, and the quantitative image analysis was implemented. Comparing with gravity sedimentation method, the samples fabricated from floatage self-assembly with mixed solvents have the lowest porosity, and when ethylene glycol and water were mixed with ratio of 1:1, the lowest porosity of 27.49% could be achieved. In single slices, the porosities and fractal dimension for the voids were calculated. The results showed that two factors would significantly influence the porosity of the whole colloidal crystal: the first deposited sphere layer’s orderliness and the sedimentation speed of the spheres. The floatage self-assembly could induce a stable close-packing process, resulted from the powerful nucleation force-lateral capillary force coupled with the mixed solvent to regulate the floating upward speed for purpose of matching the assembly rate.

P-40: Elastic Grain Interactions in a Polycrystalline Wire Analyzed by a Numerical Model Reconstructed from 3D-XRD Data: Ludek Heller1; P. Shayanfard1; R. Quey2; P. Sittner1; I. Karafiatova3; Z. Pawlas3; 1Czech Academy of Sciences; 2IMT Mines Saint-Etienne; 3Charles University
    In this work, we analyze inter/intra-granular stress fields created during elastic deformation of elastically anisotropic NiTi wire subjected to uniaxial tensile loading. The analysis is based on finite element (FE) simulations using a model of the polycrystalline wire reconstructed from 3D-XRD data, consisting of the grain centroids, volumes, and orientations. A FE model of ~2500 grains is reconstructed using a new dedicated technique based on the optimization of Laguerre tessellation. The inter/intra-granular stress fields are calculated by subjecting the FE model to the same uniaxial force as that used in the 3D-XRD experiment. In order to find out whether the simulated stress fields are realistic, the simulated grain-averaged values of the grain stresses are compared with their experimental 3D-XRD counterparts. Furthermore, the simulated inter/intra-granular stresses are statistically correlated to lattice orientations of individual grains, as well as to the mismatch in microstructural attributes of neighboring grains (lattice misorientations, volumes’ difference).

P-69: In-situ 3D Measurement of Surface Relief Induced by Phase Transformation in Low Carbon Steel by Digital Holographic Microscope: Shuehi komine1; Junya Inoue1; 1The University of Tokyo
    Digital holographic microscope (DHM) was applied to in-situ measure surface relief (SR) accompanied by the formation of plate-like microstructures in low carbon steels. SR was conventionally measured by scanning microscopes at room temperature in order to investigate the mechanism of phase transformations. DHM can measure the change of 3D shape of the surface even when the formed structures are being surrounded by austenite because of its non-contact method and high measurement rate as over 50 fps. Therefore, more rigorous investigations are possible into the mechanism. The pure deformation by the transformation can be acquired by subtracting the height of the surface just before the transformation from the height of the deformed surface. We verified the applicability of phenomenological theory of martensite crystallography (PTMC) for the shape of SR by comparing the measured shape with the estimated shape by PTMC in combination with a crystal orientation analysis.

P-62: Stress-induced Damage Evolution in Two and Three Phase Al Matrix Composites: Sergei Evsevleev1; Sandra Cabeza2; Tatiana Mishurova1; Gerardo Garcés3; Guillermo Requena4; Igor Sevostianov5; Giovanni Bruno1; 1Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung; 2Institut Laue-Langevin; 3National Center for Metallurgical Research CENIM; 4German Aerospace Centre ; 5New Mexico State University
    Two metal matrix composites, both consisting of a near-eutectic cast AlSi12CuMgNi alloy, one reinforced with 15%vol. Al2O3 short fibers and the other with 7%vol. Al2O3 short fibers + 15%vol. SiC particles were studied. Distribution, orientation, and volume fraction of the different phases was determined by means of synchrotron computed tomography. The load partitioning between phases was investigated by in-situ neutron diffraction compression tests. The internal damage of the eutectic Si phase and Al2O3 fibers after ex-situ compression tests was directly observed in CT reconstructed volumes. Significant debonding between Al-matrix and SiC particles was found. Those observations allowed rationalizing the load transfer among the constituent phases of two different composites. Finally, based on the Maxwell scheme, a micro-mechanical model was utilized for the composite with one and two ceramic reinforcements. The model rationalizes the experimental data, and predicts the evolution of principal stresses in each phase.

P-70: A New Generation of X-ray Computed Tomography Devices for Quality Assurance and Metrology Inspection in the Field of Additive Manufacturing: Andre Beerlink1; 1YXLON International GmbH
    The YXLON FF35 CT system is designed to achieve extremely precise X-ray inspection results for a wide range of applications while at the same time it offers user friendliness at highest level by a new intuitive touch interface control concept and further smart functionalities. With its metrology capabilities it is perfect for very small to medium size parts inspection in the quality assurance for automotive, electronics, aerospace and material science industries and research. Results of representative applications, e.g. from additive manufacturing, metrology and carbon fibre composites, will be highlighted during the presentation to demonstrate the performance of today´s laboratory CT devices, such as the YXLON FF35 CT, and how they are used to increase the level of quality assurance processes in 3D materials sciences.

P-71: Lab Based Diffraction Contrast Tomography – Applications and Future Directions: James Carr1; Samuel Mcdonald1; Hrishikesh Bale2; Nicolas Gueninchault3; Erik Lauridsen3; Philip Withers1; 1University of Manchester; 2Carl Zeiss Microscopy Inc.; 3Xnovo Technology ApS
     The mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials are significantly affected by behaviour at the crystalline grain structure level. The ability to characterise crystallographic microstructure in 3D, or 3D through time, non-destructively, is a powerful tool for understanding materials performance. The recent diffraction contrast based X-ray tomography technique (LabDCT) allows routine characterization of polycrystalline materials on a commercial laboratory X-ray microscope. Combining grain orientation and microstructural information opens new possibilities for characterization of damage, deformation and growth mechanisms. Imaging these microscopic features in 3D with advanced contrast techniques enhances the collective understanding of fundamental materials mechanisms behind these processes. Here, we present select application examples of LabDCT, including the following of grain growth and grain reorientation during sintering of copper, influence of crystallography on corrosion in Mg alloys and identification of large grains in nickel-base superalloys. Results compared against serial section SEM-EBSD measurements will also be discussed.

P-72: Large-scale Phase-field Simulation of 3D Ideal Grain Growth: Testing the Mean-field Theory and Stereological Analysis: Eisuke Miyoshi1; Tomohiro Takaki1; Munekazu Ohno2; Yasushi Shibuta3; Shinji Sakane1; Takashi Shimokawabe3; Takayuki Aoki4; 1Kyoto Institute of Technology; 2Hokkaido University; 3The University of Tokyo; 4Tokyo Institute of Technology
    Grain growth is one of the most fundamental phenomena in controlling the microstructure of polycrystalline materials. However, the true picture of grain growth is still controversial even for the simplest (or ideal) case, mainly due to the difficulty in extracting reliable statistics for 3D grain assemblies from experiments or limited-scale simulations. In this study, by utilizing the phase-field method and parallel GPU computing on a supercomputer, we perform ultra-large-scale simulations of 3D ideal grain growth with up to 25603 grids and more than three million initial grains. This computational scale allows for quantifying the grain growth behaviors with a quite-high degree of statistical reliability. On the basis of the simulated results and mean-field theory, a predictive model of ideal grain growth is discussed. Furthermore, the applicability of the stereological analysis to ideal growth is tested, demonstrating that the 3D microstructural characteristics in this phenomenon can be inferred from cross-sectional observations.

P-74: Permeability Prediction for 3D Dendrites Structure by Large-scale Phase-field Lattice Boltzmann Simulation: Tomohiro Takaki1; Shinji Sakane1; Munekazu Ohno2; Yasushi Shibuta3; Takayuki Aoki4; 1Kyoto Institute of Technology; 2Hokkaido University; 3The University of Tokyo; 4Tokyo Institute of Technology
    To perform a macroscopic casting simulation with high accuracy, we need permeability data for the interdendritic liquid flow. There are experimental and numerical ways to acquire the permeability data. The experimental way to obtain the permeability have been mainly studies in the 1990s. In the experimental method, a systematical permeability prediction for various dendrite structures is difficult. Therefore, a permeability prediction by numerical simulation is expected as a promising way. Here, a problem in the numerical way is a high computational cost. In this study, we enable a systematical permeability prediction for three-dimensional (3D) complicated dendrite structure by GPU-accelerated large-scale simulation. In this method, we use a phase-field method for the dendrite structure prediction, and lattice Boltzmann method for the prediction of interdendritic liquid flow. The simulation is accelerated by a GPU supercomputer TSUBAME3.0 at Tokyo Institute of Technology. Some simulation examples are introduced in this presentation.

P-73: Advanced 3D Classification of Graphite in Cast Iron: Andres Olguin1; Michael Engstler1; Emilio Jimenez Piqué2; Frank Mücklich1; 1Saarland University; 2Universitat Politčcnica de Catalunya
    Visual analysis classification of graphite in cast iron is an established method in the foundry industry. It is the metallographer’s task to estimate the percentages of the different graphite forms and sizes. The European Standard EN ISO 945-1 defines 6 graphite forms: I (lamellar), II (crab), III (vermicular), IV (temper carbon), V (slightly irregular spheroidal) and VI (spheroidal); and provides reference micrographs for comparison. A natural shortcoming of this method is its inherent subjectivity. In this project, we seek to develop a routine for objective classification based on 3D data obtained from serial polishing and micro-computed tomography. Planar sections of reconstructed volume elements are used to estimate probability distributions of parameters proved relevant in graphite characterisation. The practical application of these probability distributions is as calibration (i.e. decision) curves in a classifier.

P-75: Finite-deformation Continuum Dislocation Dynamics for 3D Dislocation Microstructure : Anter El-Azab1; 1Purdue University
    Most dislocation dynamics model developments focus on the simulation of line dynamics and density based, statistical mechanical approaches for dislocation evolution for the case of infinitesimal crystal deformation. We present a finite deformation, density based dislocation dynamics approach for mesoscale deformation of single crystals. This framework is a generalization to finite deformation of our earlier successful model for dislocation microstructure evolution based on continuum dislocation dynamics. A derivation of the dislocation transport equations at finite strain and lattice rotation in Lagrangian and Eulerian forms is outlined, with a special focus on the kinematic coupling of dislocation density evolution on individual slip systems and to the coupling via cross slip and dislocation reactions. The relevant crystal mechanics, thermodynamics, and constitutive closure questions will be discussed.

P-76: High Resolution X-ray Microscopy and 3D Simulations for Ceramics: Alisa Stratulat1; 1Carl Zeiss Microscopy Limited
     The development of new advanced ceramics for industrial applications (insulators, membranes for separation and filtration, etc.) relies on the understanding of the material structure and process optimization. Traditional characterization methods for these materials often imply complicated and time-consuming sample preparation and only analyse small volumes within the sample. Hence, there is a need for more advanced techniques that provide better understanding of the performance of these materials. 3D X-Ray Microscopy (XRM) provides methods for imaging and analysis of ceramics such as porosity measurement throughout the volume of interest, identification and segmentation of different phases and non-destructive observations of internal defects or voids. In addition, real 3D structures are generated that can be imported into simulation models to predict effective diffusivity, fluid flow or thermal properties. This presentation will overview the advantages of coupling XRM with physics simulations and illustrate some applications in the area of ceramics.

P-77: In-situ Characterization of Subgrains by 3D High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping during Cyclic Deformation: Annika Diederichs1; Ulrich Lienert2; Henning Friis Poulsen1; Wolfgang Pantleon1; 1Technical University of Denmark; 2DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron
    High Resolution Reciprocal Space Mapping uses a focused beam of high energy X-rays to provide quantitative information about the internal structure of individual grains embedded in a macroscopic sample by acquiring three-dimensional intensity distributions with high angular resolution. Because of local differences in the crystalline lattice of deformed metals, the collected reciprocal space maps do not show a smooth intensity distribution. Dislocation-free subgrains can be identified by distinct intensity peaks, while dislocation-rich walls manifest as a smooth cloud with lower intensity. The substructure within individual grains can thus be analyzed and internal stresses revealed. The evolution of a large number of subgrains can be followed in-situ during loading sequences, which is demonstrated on polycrystalline aluminium during tension-compression cycling. The radial peak positions of the individual subgrains follow a Gaussian distribution indicating variations in their specific elastic strains; these develop with proceeding deformation in overall accordance with refined composite models.

P-78: Innovative Imaging Developments at the PSICHE Beamline of Synchrotron SOLEIL: Andrew King1; Nicolas Guignot1; Jean-Pierre Deslandes1; Eglantine Boulard2; Yann Le Godec2; Jean-Paul Itié1; 1Synchrotron SOLEIL; 2IMPMC, UMPC
    The PSICHE beamline of the SOLEIL synchrotron performs tomography and diffraction experiments, primarily for materials science and geophysics users. Here we describe a series of recent innovations that extend the capabilities of the instruments, and present examples of results obtained. Stepwise, high vertical overlap tomography allows ring artefacts to be substantially reduced at the acquisition stage, especially important in samples presenting low contrast or in which rings are difficult to correct post acquisition. Scanning radiography with a line focused beam allows 2D imaging to be combined with efficient diffraction measurements. The UToPEC project is a new Paris-Edinburgh press optimised for high speed tomography (0.5 seconds per full tomogram) at high pressures and temperatures (up to 10GPa and 1500K).

P-35: Characterizing Voids During Ductile Fracture of a Dual Phase Steel Using X-ray Computed Tomography and Xe+ FIB Serial Sectioning EBSD: Yi Guo1; Timothy Burnett1; Kyono Hirofumi2; Hirofumi Ohtsubo2; Kaoru Sato2; Philip Withers1; 1Henry Moseley X-ray Imaging Facility; 2JFE Steel
    We demonstrate a correlative approach to study voids, formed during ductile fracture of a Ferritic-Bainitic steel, using a combination of time-lapse X-ray computed tomography (CT) and serial sectioning EBSD (SSE). The X-ray tomography followed the nucleation and growth of voids during deformation and provides statistical information regarding the distribution and volume fraction of voids at micrometre length scale. The SSE enables a site specific excavation of a relevant volume, guided by the CT results, and provides information on the grain neighbourhoods around these voids in 3D with details on a finer length scale. With this approach, features of interest can be targeted and purposely studied. Both spherical and ellipsoidal voids were characterised focusing on the grain orientations and patterns of deformations in 3D around the voids, with Schmid factor calculations on the full 3D grain orientations to understand the deformations leading the observed shape difference.

P-79: Mesoscopic Simulations of Pristine and Cross-linked Carbon Nanotube Films: Structural and Mechanical Properties: Alexey Volkov1; Abu Horaira Banna1; 1University of Alabama
    Relationships between structural and mechanical properties of carbon nanotube (CNT) films are studied numerically based on a mesoscopic model of CNT materials. In the mesoscopic model, every nanotube is represented as a chain of stretchable cylindrical segments. The mesoscopic force field accounts for stretching, bending, and bending buckling of CNTs as well as for van der Waals intertube interaction and presence of covalent cross-links. The CNT films are generated in dynamic simulations of self-organization of initially dispersed CNTs into a stable continuous network of bundles. The structural parameters of the generated films are compared with the properties obtained in experimental studies. The elastic and inelastic properties of generated CNT films are found in simulations of stretching and compression under conditions of quasi-static and dynamic loading. The calculated elastic moduli and material strength are correlated with the CNT length, material density, cross-link density, and structural parameters of CNT networks.

P-80: Multi-scale Analysis of Deformation in Ductile Cast Iron Using Combined 3DXRD, X-ray Tomography, Image Analysis and Digital Volume Correlation: Stephen Hall1; Torsten Sjögren2; Erik Dartfeldt2; Peter Skoglund3; Lennart Elmquist4; Marta Majkut5; Jonas Engqvist1; Jessica Elfsberg3; 1Division of Solid Mechnics, Lund University; 2Research Institutes of Sweden; 3Scania; 4SWEREA; 5European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
    Ductile cast irons (DCI) are often the preferred materials, e.g., for the exhaust systems of heavy truck engines, due to their greater ductility and, thus, greater strength and fatigue resistance, compared to other cast irons. DCI comprises a ferrite matrix with dispersed graphite spheroids, which impedes crack development. The mechanical response of DCI is, thus, a complex, multi-scale interaction of different material phases. Here, deformation in DCI is studied over different length-scales during in-situ tensile testing at beamline ID11, ESRF. We focus on the use of in-situ 3DXRD to study the evolution of the strain in the crystalline ferrite matrix and correlate this with continuum strain fields from digital volume correlation of x-ray tomography images acquired at the same load levels. Furthermore, deformation in the graphite nodules is assessed by image analysis. In combination, the results provide new insights into the multi-scale coupling of deformation in DCI.

P-86: Initial Efforts Towards Molecular Dynamics Modelling of Mesoscale Bulk Heterojunction Morphologies: Anders Gertsen1; Drew Pearce2; Anne Guilbert2; Jenny Nelson2; Jens Andreasen1; 1Technical University of Denmark; 2Imperial College London
    Organic photovoltaics based on polymer:fullerene or polymer:polymer active layers are crucially dependent on the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the mesoscale bulk heterojunction due to the limited exciton diffusion lengths in polymeric materials. Here, we present Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations of single indacenodithiophene-co-benzothiadiazole (IDTBT) polymers in solution and the dependence of their properties such as persistence lengths on different sidechains and solvents, since long persistence lengths are believed to be crucial for high charge mobilities. Furthermore, we present initial efforts towards reaching mesoscale simulations by employing coarse-grained MD models, i.e. decreasing the number of degrees of freedom through the description of several atoms in a unified manner, in the search of obtaining time-resolved insight into the bulk heterojunction formation. Through this, we hope to aid the interpretation of experimental 3D imaging and refine the current, predominantly phenomenological, hypotheses which are based on indirect experimental probing of 3D morphology.

P-81: Observing Thermal-driven Martensitic Phase Transformation in NiTi Single Crystals Below the Surface and in High Resolution: Ashley Bucsek1; Jeppe Ormstrup2; Mustafacan Kustal3; Can Yildirim3; Phil Cook3; Hugh Simons2; Carsten Detlefs3; Aaron Stebner1; 1Colorado School of Mines; 2Technical University of Denmark; 3European Synchrotron Radiation Facility
    The promise of shape memory alloys (SMAs) has led to over 20,000 patents worldwide. However, the promise of SMAs has not been matched by its technological impact—only a limited number of these patents have been realized as commercially viable. One reason for this gap between development and implementation is the lack of suitable experiments. The length scales of microstructure interfaces in an SMA routinely span 10 nm to 1 mm, and techniques which can be used at these length scales are typically limited to surface observations, are destructive, or are averaged over many grains. Dark-Field X-Ray Microscopy (DFXM) offers the capability to measure through bulk specimens with a spatial resolution of 100 nm, and orientation and strain sensitivities of 0.1 mrad and 10-4, respectively. We present the first-ever DFXM experiments on SMAs, which include in-situ, below-the-surface observations of thermal-driven martensitic phase transformation in single-crystal NiTi SMAs.

P-82: OOF 3D: New Developments in a Materials-focused Finite Element System: Andrew Reid1; 1National Institute of Standards and Technology
    The OOF object-oriented finite element software provides a finite-element tool with a GUI interface designed around the needs and knowledge of materials science domain experts, packaging sophisticated image-processing and finite element algorithms in a way that encourages structure-property exploration. A major feature of this code is a suite of tools to allow users to construct well-formed, space-filling 3D meshes with boundaries that match up with features in the input microstructure image. This presents an interface design and visualization challenge in 3D in particular, where generalization from 2D has not been straightforward. In particular, the development team has recently incorporated a new algorithm for computing the homogeneity of candidate finite elements, an important aspect of numerically assessing mesh quality, which can be difficult to assess visually in 3D. This talk will review the current state of both the user-interface and technical capabilities of OOF 3D.

P-83: Phase Field Modeling of Grain Boundary Evolution in Porous Oxides: Anter El-Azab1; 1Purdue University
    We present a phase field model for investigating grain boundary evolution in porous oxides with applications to UO2 and CeO2. The model takes into account the interactions between pores and grain boundaries as well as the pore mobility effects. Using a formal asymptotic analysis, the phase field model was matched to its sharp-interface counterpart and all model parameters were uniquely determined. Therefore, the model is able to obtain accurate growth rates that can be compared with experiments. The model was used to reveal various growth regimes in porous oxides and sort the boundary-controlled versus pore-controlled growth kinetic regimes. The model results showed that the pore breakaway phenomenon can only be observed in 3D simulations. The important features of the model and results will be presented.

P-84: Pseudo-3D Modelling of Sigma Phase Precipitation in a Duplex Stainless Steel: Anders Salwen1; 1InnoXinetix AB
     Computer modelling of sigma phase nucleation, growth and dissolution in a duplex stainless steel will be compared to measurements (“In-Situ Observations of Sigma Phase Dissolution in 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel using Synchrotron X-Ray Diffraction”, J.W. Elmer, T.A. Palmer and E.D. Specht, 2006). Austenite and sigma phase are modeled as spheres with a sharp interface, each phase with a discrete size distribution. Pseudo-3D denotes that the diffusion fields are 3D in the spherical precipitates (treated as point sources) and their close matrix surroundings and maximum 1D in the remaining matrix. Diffusion of Cr, Mo, Ni and N is modelled using mobilities and chemical potentials from Thermo-Calc databases. All spheres of austenite and sigmaphase interact with each other via exchange of alloying elements via the ferrite matrix. The dynamics of the system, i.e. the growth or shrinkage of the spheres, is determined by maximizing the decrease of the total Gibbs energy of the system for each time step. No assumption is made about the interface compositions, such as "local equilibrium", which, together with surface energies, makes it possible to describe Ostwald ripening.Nucleation in the ferrite is determined by equilibrium calculations and the incubation time before nucleation takes place is determined by the user.

P-85: Three-dimensional Phase-field lattice-Boltzmann Modelling of Dendritic and Eutectic Growth with Coupled Thermal and Solute Diffusion: Ang Zhang1; Jinglian Du1; Shaoxing Meng1; Zhipeng Guo1; Shoumei Xiong1; 1Tsinghua University
    The interaction between the thermal and solute diffusion determines the morphological evolution during solidification, which significantly influences the eventual mechanical properties of materials. However, to realize the coupled thermal-solute microstructure evolution with a realistic Lewis number (Le, ~ 104), the computing overhead is gigantic. To solve the tough problem, in this work, a phase-filed lattice-Boltzmann approach was employed to simulate the thermal-solute microstructure evolution, which allowed the time marching step enhanced 2-3 orders of magnitude in comparison with the explicit finite difference method. To further improve the computational efficiency, a parallel and adaptive mesh refinement algorithm was developed to reduce the computing load. Fully coupled 3-D thermal-solute dendritic and eutectic growth was first reproduced for Al-Cu alloys with a realistic Lewis number. Results showed that the domain temperature became non-uniform due to the release of the latent heat, and the thermal diffusion had remarkable influence on the final morphology.