2017 Symposium on Functional Nanomaterials: Emerging Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology: Poster Session
Sponsored by: TMS Functional Materials Division, TMS: Nanomaterials Committee
Program Organizers: Jiyoung Kim, University of Texas; Stephen McDonnell, University of Virginia; Chang-Yong Nam, Brookhaven National Laboratory; V. U. Unnikrishnan, The University of Alabama; Nitin Chopra, The University of Alabama

Tuesday 6:00 PM
February 28, 2017
Room: Hall B1
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr

Session Chair: Jiyoung Kim, University of Texas at Dallas; Nitin Chopra, Univ. of Alabama; Chang-Yong Nam, Brookhaven National Laboratory; Stephen McDonnell, University of Virginia; Vinu Unnikrishnan, University of Alabama

J-1: Adsorption of Fluoride Gases in Aluminum Production Using Nano Technology: Mohsen Amerisiahooei1; Khirollah Mehrani1; Mohammad Yousefi1; Kamibiz Bordbar2; 1Islamic Azad University; 2Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
    HF,Cf4,C2F6 and SiF4 are the main gaseous fluorides evolved in the Hall-Heroult process. However, the major contributor of fluoride is HF. Since these gases are very toxic, they must be adsorbed from environment. In this research, adsorption of HF,Cf4,C2F6 and SiF4 in aluminum smelter is discussed and compared. Due to the capability of nano tubes in gas adsorption, this study has been conducted to figure out the adsorption of fluoride gases on (8,8) armchair carbon nano tubes (CNTs). Lennard-Jones potential was used for gas-gas and gas-carbon nano tube interactions. In addition, the potential parameters for the carbon-gas and carbon-carbon interactions were obtained from the Lorenz-Berthelot combining rules. The simulation results showed that this adsorption can be a possible solution for separation of toxic gases from environment. The proposed method provides a new horizon in the aluminum industry.

J-2: 12-tungstophosphoric Acid Load on SBA-15 Mesoporous Materials by Ultrasound-assisted Impregnation Method: Li Dong Wei1; Zhang Tao1; Yang Qiu Ju2; 1Chongqing University of Education; 2Chongqing Institute Of Engineering
    TPA/SBA-15 was prepared by ultrasound-assisted impregnation method. Through IR, XRD, N2 absorption-desorption isothermal plots, TEM, SEM Experiment results shown that, both of them own mespore structure. The catalytic preformnce of the catalysts was evaluated in the transesterification of acetic acid and ethanol.There were 7 acid sites in TPA/SBA-15, 6 of them were strong acid sites. After capsulated into SBA-15 channal, the thermal decomposition temperature of TPA improved to 650 ℃. After solvent gradient elution, the remained active component amount on TPA/SBA-15 was 22%. Through the probe reaction of ethyl acetate synthesis, TPA/SBA-15 shown 100% selectivity, the convertion of acetic acid reached to 92% in initial used, after cycle reused 11 times, the catalyst still shown activity and the convertion of acetic acid still more than 70%. Furthermore, the structure of TPA/SBA-15 maintained unchanged after cycle reused 11 times.

J-3: Applying Nano Technology to Separation Fluorides Emissions with Oxygen for Aluminum Smelter: Mohsen Amerisiahooei1; Khirollah Mehrani1; Mohammad Yousefi1; Kamibiz Bordbar2; 1Islamic Azad University; 2Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
    Fluoride gases are very toxic in aluminum smelter and separation this gases from oxygen is very important. There are several mechanisms by which fluorides are lost from electrolyte and have been summarized ( a) direct hydrolysis of electrolyte to HF by hydrogen) from alumina, anode carbon or air(b) Vaporization of electrolyte, either directly into the air sweep or into the anode gas(c) Entrainet of electrolyte drop-in the air or anode gas flows in this research separation of HF,CF4,C2F6,SIF4 With O2 Discussion is compared. Lennaed-Jones potential was used for gas-gas and gas-carbon nanotube interactions and the potential parameters for the carbon-gas and carbon-carbon interactions were obtained from the Lorenz-Berthelot combining rules. my Calculations have shown that separation between oxygen and fluoride gases in aluminum smelter is possible.

J-4: Directed Self-assembly of Nanoparticles from Immiscible Au-Ni Alloy Thin Films via Laser-induced Thermal Annealing: Sun-Kyu Lee1; Hye-Jung Lee1; Yong-Jun Oh1; 1Hanbat University
    Immiscible Au-Ni alloy thin films undergo phase separation and dewetting due to their thermodynamic and morphological instability at elevated temperatures. We report the evolution of the phase decomposition and particle formation in a Au-Ni alloy thin film deposited onto SiO2/Si template with a line-patterned topography (50 nm line-width), by laser annealing and/or thermal annealing in forming gas (Ar/H2) flow. Laser irradiation dewetted the film into particles with a solid-solution via rapid melting and solidification. However, subsequent annealing and slower cooling of the dewetted particles induced phase separation in each particle and formed Au-Ni junction structure in a single particle. We could also produce ordered array of these Au-Ni jointed particles with <50 nm size using the template with a line-patterned topography. The ordered assemblies of these bi-metallic nanoparticles have a potential for application in several functional devices that utilize the plasmonic, optoelectrical, and magnetic properties of metal alloy nanoparticles.

J-5: Electrochemical Corrosion Study in Organic Films Containing Processed Vermiculite and Zinc Oxide Nanometric: Gonçalo Siqueira1; Hélio Wiebeck2; Paulo Kanayama2; Jose Mauro Oliveira2; Fábio Esper2; 1University of Sao Paulo; 2University of São Paulo
    The study of the behavior of the electrochemical corrosion of carbon steel was made ​​by adding zinc oxide and vermiculite gage type load processed organic surface films. The performance and the level achieved in corrosion protection were evaluated in electrochemical tests . The concentration of particulate zinc oxide and vermiculite , present in dried films made ​​possible to define the efficiency of organic coatings on steel technical carbono.Parâmetros obtained from this study may be indicative for the use of zinc oxide and vermiculite type processed sectors in corrosion inhibiting coatings.

J-7: Green Synthesis Gold Nanoparticles by the Silybum Marianum Extract: Laura Garcia-Hernandez1; Pedro Ramirez1; Mizraim Flores1; Diana Arenas1; J.Marlen Lemus1; Mireya Escorcia1; 1Universidad Tecnológica De Tulancingo
    Conventional methods of producing nanomaterials involve the use of expensive chemical and physical processes that often use toxic materials with potential hazards such as environmental and toxicity. In the present research, were synthesized from the plant extract of Silybum marianum and ionic solutions gold, under atmospheric conditions and low temperatures. The extract was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy analysis indicated the involvement of carboxyl (-C= O), hydroxyl (-OH) and amine (-NH) functional groups. The characterization of gold nanoparticles was performed using UV-vis spectroscopy was monitoring by the change in color due to the excitation of surface plasmon vibrations of the formed nanoparticles which it was observed in 540 nm. The diameters of the gold nanoparticles were predominantly in the nanometer range, which it was determined by TEM. The importance of these studies is to find a suitable reducing agent based herbal extract for the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles to cost-effectively.

J-8: Investigation of Microstructure Evolution in 3-D Memory Devices: Chloe Director1; 1Purdue University
    3D packages have a multitude of uses in the technology space wherever big data is required. In order for these 3D packages to work, thousands of micro-solder bumps connect the layers of the packages, and allow data to flow and be stored. These packages, while recently commercialized, are still under development. The reliability of micro-bump interconnects has not been well characterized for long term applications. This study analyzes the intermetallic growth, cracking, and microstructural evolution of solder micro-bumps as a function of their location in the multi-layer package. These packages are analyzed under different conditions utilizing high temperature holds at 150°C, thermal cycling between -43°C and 106°C at a rate of 2.5°C per minute, and a combination of the two. The growth rate of the intermetallic was analyzed using an Arrhenius model, and predictions were made for the lifetime of these interconnects.

J-9: Mechanical Properties of Bio-inspired Nanocomposites: Anthony Shank1; Scott Muller1; Arun Nair1; 1University of Arkansas
    Bio-inspired nanocomposites have gained attention in engineering due to their unique mechanical properties. In this study, we focus on developing a nanocomposite based on bone’s nanoscale properties. We use graphene as a fiber laminate in metal matrix to mimic the nanoscale structure of bone. Previous studies have shown that graphene can effectively inhibit dislocation propagation within metal-graphene nanocomposites under compressive loading, there by increasing the mechanical strength of the nanocomposite. We use molecular dynamics to study the mechanical properties of Ni-graphene nanocomposite under pure bending, using a three-point bending test. Here we aim to uncover the optimal number, size, and spacing of graphene sheets within the nanocomposite for maximum strength under bending. Our preliminary results indicate that the structural arrangement of graphene sheets changes the overall mechanical behavior of Ni-graphene nanocomposite under bending. The results of this research will help guide the design of future metal-graphene nanocomposite design.

J-11: Novel Synthesis of Variable Size BaTiO3 Colloidal Nanocrystals Doped with Transition Metals as Multiferroic Material: Tommso Costanzo1; Gabriel Caruntu1; 1Central Michigan University
    Multiferroic materials possess at the same time more than one ferroic property such as ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, and ferroelasticity. The coexistence of these physical properties is difficult to achieve, but it can open the door for developing new memory devices. Due to the important role that the surface plays on the properties of nanomaterials, we have developed a new synthetic route that allows a versatile control over the size of agglomerate free perovskite nanocrystals. In particular, we will show the synthesis of transition metal doped BaTiO3 and the possibility to vary the nanocrystals size, in a range that spans from ~10 nm to ~70 nm, by simply controlling the reaction time. Furthermore, we have demonstrated that it is possible to achieve high doping concentration (up to 6%) without the formation of secondary phases. The inclusion of the transition metal into the nanocrystals was also verified by electron paramagnetic spectroscopy.

J-12: Prospects of Semimetal Microwires for Thermoelectric Applications: Leonid Konopko1; Albina Nikolaeva1; Tito Huber2; Anna Kobylianskaya1; 1IEEN D.Ghitu; 2Howard University
    We investigated the transverse thermopower in thin single-crystal Bi and Bi-Sn microwires at room temperature for the purpose of using them in anisotropic thermoelectric generator. The single-crystal microwires in the diameter range 2 - 15 μm were prepared by the high frequency liquid phase casting in a glass capillary. We have measured the transverse thermopower of thin single-crystal bismuth microwires with various diameter d. From the rotation diagrams of transverse magnetoresistance it has been established that the maximum of transverse thermopower occurs when the temperature gradient is directed along the C3 axis. The experimental model of the anisotropic thermoelectric generator from long Bi-0.05 at% Sn microwire in a glass coating was created (long microwire was coiled into a flat spiral so that at any point of the spiral axis C3 and microwire axis lying in a plane perpendicular to the flat spiral). This work was supported by STCU# 5986.

J-13: Study of Ferric Phosphate Cathode Material for Lithium-ion Battery: Jinhua Lu1; Yaochun Yao1; 1Kunming University of Science and Technology
    In recent years, owning to the outstanding advantages,lithium ferric phosphate (LiFePO4) has become a research hot spot of the cathode materials for Li-ion battery.The structure of ferric phosphate (FePO4) is very similar to that of LiFePO4,which leads to ferric phosphate become an important precursor of the cathode materials.FePO4 with different types of structures exhibits special electrochemical performance. It can be used as not only cathode material but also anode material with high capacity for Li-ion battery. The FePO4 solid and hollow spheres were synthesized with hydrothermal method, using the iron powder, phosphoric acid as raw materials, and hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer. The effect of surfactant, temperature, the molar ratio of Fe and P , feeding way , drying way were studied, and then proposed the optimal method and process conditions for iron phosphate.

J-14: Study on the Bonding Strength of the Copper Circuit Layer(Metal) and Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers(Ceramic): Shin Hyeong-won1; Hyo-Soo Lee1; Seung-Boo Jung2; 1KITECH/Rare metal group/Emotional Materials & Components Research Center; 2Sungkyunkwan University
    The anodic aluminum oxide has a regular nano-porous structure when chemically grown from aluminum in acid solution. The anodic aluminum oxide has been generally applied into the nano template for nano-devices, nano-rods, nano-needles and so on. In this study, we are going to put this structure in functional components such as heat spreaders of LED modules. Chemical bonding process between copper and anodic aluminum oxide layer was performed by electrolytic plating, and an interface material between copper and anodic aluminum oxide layer was inserted in order to enhance the bonding strength.

J-15: Synthesis of AgNP’s from Industrial Wastes: Pedro Ramirez Ortega1; Jose Elizalde Mata1; Jose Navarro Jimenez1; Rodrigo Islas Hernandez1; Laura Garcia Hernandez1; Mizraim Flores Guerrero1; 1Universidad Tecnológica de Tulancingo
    In this work the synthesis silver nanoparticles ( AgNP's) from solid industrial waste was studied, using a typical three­electrode cell; a titanium rod as work electrode, a DSA as counter electrode and a satured calomel electrode (SCE) as reference electrode. The electrochemical techniques used for the synthesis were: ciclic voltamperometry, chronopotentiometry and galvanostatic pulses. The studies chronopotentiometry allowed to identify the current with greater stability in silver reduction (­282.6μA), which was applied to the galvanostatic pulses technique. The characterizations by SEMEDS , AAS , UV-Vis and XRD confirmed the presence of AgNP ' s , with sizes of 36 nm and spherical morphology. This demonstrates the feasibility of obtaining nanostructured materials from industry wastes, helping to reduce impact of this type of wastes on the environment and the development of new areas of apicación of these nanostructured materials.

J-16: Synthesis of Vertical Si Nanowire Arrays Fabricated by Nanoimprinting Lithography and Magnetically Guided Metal-assisted Chemical Etching: Dong Won Chun1; Tae Kyoung Kim2; 1Korea Institute Science and Technology; 2University of California at San Diego
    In this study, a vertically aligned Si nanowire arrays were synthesized by combining nanoimprinting lithography and magnetically guided metal-assisted directional chemical etching. Homogeneously distributed nano-scale Ni dot arrays whose diameter is ~ 250 nm were produced by nanoimprinting lithography on Si wafer to protect Si during the etching process. We deposited a tri-layer metal catalyst (Au / Fe / Au) for the magnetically guided metal-assisted chemical etching which can improve both vertical etching rate /directionality. After Si etching process, sample underwent supercritical CO2 drying procedure to inhibit surface-tension-induced aggregation. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis confirmed high density Si nanowire arrays were produced on large Si surface area by nanoimprinting lithography and magnetically guided metal-assisted directional chemical etching. This developed method could be applied to the electrochemical devices such as Li-ion battery electrode.

J-17: The Effect of In Situ Magnetic Field and Film Thickness on Magnetic Properties and Residual Stress for Fe-based Amorphous Films: Sibo Wang1; Hoe Joon Kim1; David Laughlin1; Gianluca Piazza1; Jingxi Zhu2; 1Carnegie Mellon University; 2Sun Yat-sen University
    Fe-based amorphous thin films of two different compositions (Fe80B20 and Fe65.6Co9.4B25) for magnetic field sensor applications were deposited on Si substrates by RF magnetron sputtering. Films deposited with and without an in-situ magnetic field applied parallel to the film surface were prepared for comparison. Film residual film stress and hysteresis loops were measured for the films. For each composition, films with varying thicknesses were also deposited. Preliminary results showed that the in-situ magnetic field affected in-plane coercivity for the Fe80B20 films. An optimal thickness where both Fe80B20 and Fe65.6Co9.4B25 thin films can reach their lowest residual stress levels was determined. When the residual stress was below certain value, its distribution across different directions shows a uniaxial feature due to the applied in-situ field. The correlation between the film composition, applied in-situ magnetic field, coercivity and residual stress was studied to provide insight for future optimization of this type of films.

J-18: Theoretical Study of Sulfur Gases Adsorption in Aluminum Smelter with Carbon Nano Tube by Monte Carlo Simulation: Mohsen Amerisiahooei1; Khirollah Mehrani1; Mohammad Yousefi1; Kamibiz Bordbar2; 1Islamic Azad University; 2Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman
    In this research interaction between sulfur gases (SO2,H2S,CS2)with carbon nano tube Are discussed. THE anode carbon contain sulphur which reacts with oxygen formed during electrolysis and give SO2,and also reacts with moisture in the raw material during electrolysis gives H2S ,in addition reacts with carbon in anode during electrolysis gives CS2. In the atmosphere this gas reacts with more oxygen and water vapor and sulphuric acid formed. Lennaed-Jones potential was used for gas-gas and gas-carbon nanotube interactions and the potential parameters for the carbon-gas and carbon-carbon interactions were obtained from the Lorenz-Berthelot combining rules show that the adsorption of this gases on carbon nano tube impossible. And highest interaction is between so2 and carbon nano tube.

J-20: Production of Nano Calcium Silicates by Alternative Methods of Synthesis: Juan Restrepo1; Oscar Restrepo1; Jorge Tobón1; 1Universidad Nacional de Colombia
    Portland cement is synthesized by solid state synthesis at high temperature (1450 °C). The two most important phases of the clinker are the calcium silicates (C3S and C2S). In the search for high performance materials, where a strict control of chemical composition, shape and particle-size distribution is required; and from an energy-environmental viewpoint, alternative methods become pathway for synthesis of materials such as cement. Some researchers have reported the possibility to obtain silicate and aluminate cements by alternative synthesis methods, which optimize both time and temperature. The development of these alternative methods focuses on obtaining products with cement-like features, but nanometric size, which gives particular properties as to increased hydraulic reactivity and mechanical behavior, generating an interesting challenge that opens expectation an important industrial scale. Because of this, the present document reports the synthesis process of Nano calcium silicates through Solution Combustion Synthesis (SCS).

J-21: Simple Green Synthesis of Amino Acid Functionalised CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe Core-multi Shell with Improved Cell Viability for Cellular Imaging: Vuyelwa Ncapayi1; Sandile Songca1; Oluwafemi Oluwatobi2; 1Walter Sisulu University; 2University of Johannesburg
    We herein report a simple, economical and green synthesis of highly fluorescent, water soluble and stable arginine functionalised CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe multi core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) for cellular imaging. The synthesis of the CdTe/CdSe/ZnSe NPs was carried out under ambient conditions in the absence of an inert environment and involved the use of K¬2TeO3 and Na2SeSO4 as a stable tellurium and selenium precursor respectively. The as-prepared NPs were characterised using UV-Vis absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). The optical analyses showed an enhancement in the fluorescent intensity after the functionlisation with improved quantum yield. The functionalised NPs (F-NPs) showed reduced cytotoxicity compared to the bare NPs when investigated on KM-Luc/GFP cell line at different concentrations. The fluorescent imaging performed using confocal fluorescent microscope indicated that the as-synthesised functionalised NPs were taken up by the cells.

J-22: Synthesis of Mn2O3 Nanopowders with Urea and Citric Acid by Solution Combustion Route: Esma Yilmaz1; M. Seref Sonmez1; Bora Derin1; Filiz Cinar Sahin1; Onuralp Yucel1; 1Istanbul Technical University
    In this study, synthesis of Mn2O3 powders by solution combustion route was carried out. Urea (CH4N2O) and citric acid (C6H8O7.H2O) was used as a fuel material in solution combustion synthesis, while manganese nitrate (Mn(NO3)2.4H2O) was used as an oxidant. Surface area of Mn2O3 synthesised by urea was calculated as 19,37 m2/g and 25,07 m2/g after the calcination at 400°C and 500°C, respectively. Surface area of Mn2O3 synthesised by citric acid was calculated as 63,77 m2/g when fuel/oxidizer was 1/1, ignition temperature of 250°C and calcination temperature at 500°C. Spherical particles of Mn2O3 having average particle size of 50-60 nm was synthesised by using urea, while foam like porous structure of Mn2O3 was obtained when citric acid was used as a fuel in solution combustion synthesis. Pore diameters between 27 and 55 nm was determined for this powders.

J-23: Effect of Additives on the Microstructures of Highly-oriented (111) Nanotwinned Cu: Kuan-Ju Chen1; 1National Chiao Tung University
    In this study, we focus on the effect of additives on the microstructures of highly-oriented (111) nanotwinned Cu. Using commercially available additives provided by Chemleader Corp., we are able to tailor the microstructures of the nanotwinned Cu films. Films are prepared by DC and pulse electroplating. By X-ray diffraction analysis and FIB image of electroplating results on Cu/Ti/SiO2 wafer, it is obvious that not only the electroplating waveform but also the type of additives play an important role on controlling microstructure of nt-Cu. The above Cu films are also annealed to study the thermal stability of the nt-Cu films. In this experiment, nt-Cu film is first electroplated on Cu/TiW/SiO2 wafer and then annealed at 400°C for 1 hr. The results show that the one with a higher Cu (111) intensity value at initial state could obtain a larger grain size after annealing process.

J-27: Mechanical Properties of Highly (111)-oriented Nanotwinned Cu Lines: Wei-Ling Lai1; Chih Chen1; 1National Chiao Tung University
    In the studies reported by Lu et al., nt-Cu shows excellent mechanical properties. The ductility of nanotwinned copper is still limited. In addition, highly (111)-oriented nt-Cu films have been fabricated by electroplating in 2012. However, the mechanical properties of the highly (111)-oriented nt-Cu films have not been examined. Whether the nt-Cu films can possess higher mechanical strength and maintain reasonable ductility is of interests. In this research, we investigate the effect of nanotwinned structure on mechanical properties. The results indicate that the tensile strength of the nt-Cu films ranges from 450 MPa to 600 MPa, which are much higher than the samples with (111) nanotwins. However, the elongation of the (111) nt-Cu was less than 10%. Detailed data will be presented in the conference.

J-28: Phosphorus Gasification from High-phosphorsiron Ore during Carbothermic Reduction: Yuanyuan Zhang1; Qingguo Xue1; Jingsong Wang1; Zhenfeng Zhou1; 1University of Science and Technology Beijing
    The gasification process of phosphorus from high phosphorus iron ore during carbothermic reduction process was investigated using a quadrupole mass spectrometer gas analysis. Due to the complicated structure and composition of high-phosphorus iron ore, High-phosphorus iron ore chemical composition is modeled by fluorapatite and pure substances in this paper. The gas species vaporized during the carbothermic reaction were measured by the quadrupole mass spectrometer with comparison to the ion currents for the respective molecular gas species. From the gas analysis, it was observed that PO gas species were vaporized around 973 K-1073K temperature range and P gas were vaporized above 1273K.During the reduction process ,the reduction of iron oxide occurred and Fe-Si-Al ganguephase formed in carbon bearing pellets firstly, then fluorapatite began to decompose into Ca3(PO4)2 and CaF2. As the reaction went on, Ca3(PO4)2 and Fe-Si-Al ganguephase reacted quickly with each other to generate CaAl2Si2O8 and PO or P.

J-29: Study of Nano-twinned Cu Prepared by Low-temperature Electrodeposition and ItsThermal Stability: Yen-Chieh Chen1; Chih Chen1; 1National Chiao Tung University
    In this study, we investigate the microstructure changes of nanotwinned Cu with electroplating temperatures. Cu films were produced by electrodeposition through DC mode and pulse-current at low temperatures, including 5˚C,10˚C,15˚C, 20˚C and 35˚C. Under DC mode, it is harder to form nanotwins as the temperature is lower; while the preferred orientation is almost unaffected from 5˚C to 20˚C using pulse-current mode. Thermal stability of nt-Cu film was investigated through annealing process which was taken place at 400˚C for 1 hr. Based on XRD results, it can be seen that for both modes, Cu films seem to be more difficult to occur extremely anisotropic grain growth at 5˚C and 10˚C. The detailed results will be presented in the conference.

J-31: Two-step Annealing of Bilayer Cu and the Mechanism of Grain Growth on (100)-oriented Cu Film: Hsin Yong Liu1; Chih Chen1; 1National Chiao Tung University
    In order to limit the scattering of electron at grain boundaries (GBs) which contributes to the resistivity, it is necessary to reduce the number of GBs by increasing the grain size of Cu films. The grain growth evolution in nanotwinned Cu (nt-Cu) films prepared by electrodeposition is investigated in this study. A highly-textured nt-Cu film on (100)-oriented Cu seed layer has been electroplated. After that, the nt-Cu grain growth mechanism on (100)-oriented Cu seed layer was performed. As the temperature increases, the grain growth is enhanced; meanwhile the (111)-oriented nt-Cu film gradually grow into (100)-oriented Cu film. Our results show that the grain size can be as large as 135 μm after 400 °C for 1 h for a 7 μm nt-Cu film, At temperatures below 250 °C, nt-Cu shows stability characteristics instead of growing into larger grains.

J-32: Electrical Property Improvement in Cu@Graphitic-carbon Nanocables: Danmin Liu1; Tian Tian1; Bo Zhang1; Yongzhe Zhang1; 1Beijing University of Technology
    Nanocables of metallic copper nanowire cores coated with amorphous carbon (Cu@C NCs) and graphitic carbon (Cu@G NCs) were mass synthesized via a hydrothermal approach and a further carbonization process. TEM and other techniques revealed that 15nm thickness graphitic carbons uniformly encapsulated the well crystallized copper nanowires along the [110] direction. The electrical resistivity measurement indicated that the Cu@C NCs are insulating while the Cu@G NCs are conductive. In addition, the electrical resistivity of a single Cu@G NC was 1.6158×10-5 Ω·cm at room temperature, lower than that of Cu nanowires. This opens a door to broad applications in nanoelectronics.

J-33: The Size-dependent Melting Behaviour of Al-12Si/AlN Nanomultilayered System: Joanna Lipecka1; Jolanta Janczak-Rusch2; Malgorzata Lewandowska1; Mariusz Andrzejczuk1; Gunther Richter3; Lars Jeurgens2; 1Warsaw University of Technology; 2Empa, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology; 3Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems
    Thin films and multilayers constitute an important class of nanostructured materials and they are of considerable interest in a number of applications. Our newest concept shown in this study is to build up a new class of brazing fillers by employing a 4 nm thick Al-12Si filler metal layers confined by the 3 nm thick AlN nanolayers in a multilayer geometry. According to the principles of melting point depression (MPD), the use of such a nanoarchitectured configuration can reduce the processing temperature, thus allowing benign joining of heat sensitive materials. The preliminary results indicate the onset of melting at a temperature of about 400°C (well below the Al-12Si bulk melting point of Tm=577°C), but the fundamental understanding of the phenomena and accompanying mechanisms taking place is still missing. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the structural changes in Al-Si/AlN nanomultilayer upon annealing.

J-34: Thin Hybrid Dielectric Film Engineering on MoS2 Using Molecular Atomic Layer Deposition (MALD): Jaebeom Lee1; Lanxia Cheng1; Antonio T. Lucero1; Jiyoung Kim1; 1University of Texas Dallas
    Engineering thin dielectrics is important for realizing high performance 2D material-based nanoelectronics. Compared to conventional inorganic dielectrics, organic-inorganic hybrid dielectric films are of great research interest because of promising advantages including flexibility and tunable chemical composition, allowing their electrical properties to be tailored to the desired applications. In this work, MALD is developed to grow scalable OTS-TiO2 hybrid dielectrics on MoS2 surface. AFM results suggest uniform and smooth film is achieved on MoS2 with a growth rate of ~5A/cycle. XPS spectra indicate the MoS2 is preserved with no oxidation and the corresponding O1s XPS loss features and valence band spectra show an estimated band-gap and band-offset of 5.65±0.3eV and 1.9±0.1eV. Our experimental findings represent a flexible way of depositing tunable dielectric films on 2D-TMDs surface. We acknowledge partial finantial support from the Southwest Academy on Nanoelectronics sponsored by the Nanoelectronic Research Initiative and NIST; and TMEIC for the ozone generator.

J-35: Thermoelectric Cooling by Holey Silicon and the Role of Thermal Conductivity Anisotropy: Zongqing Ren1; Jaeho Lee1; 1University of California, Irvine
    In recent years, novel thermoelectric materials and device structures have renewed interest in solid-state on-chip cooling for nanoelectronics. In particular, a thin silicon membrane with vertically-etched nanoscopic holes, so called holey silicon, has demonstrated a competitive thermoelectric figure of merit while offering an environment-friendly and cost-effective choice. This work evaluates the use of holey silicon as a thermoelectric material for on-chip cooling. Finite-element models indicate a great potential for on-chip cooling due to their high thermoelectric efficiency and anisotropic thermal conductivity which is favorable for thermoelectric systems where the in-plane thermal conductivity needs to be low and the cross-plane thermal conductivity needs to be high. The effects of anisotropic thermal conductivity, device geometry, and fundamental size effects are investigated in detail. Our analysis shows the holey silicon thermoelectric cooling system can offer effective on-chip cooling solutions for nanoelectronics.

J-36: Preparation of Rare Earth Stabilized Nanocrystalline Zirconia with Tunable Optical/Mechanical Properties: Gottlieb Uahengo1; 1University of California, San-Diego
    We present a systematic study investigating rare-earth dopant type and dopant concentrations effects on crystal phase compositions of zirconium dioxide (ZrO 2 ) and the respective bulk mechanical and optical properties. Zirconium dioxide, a traditional structural ceramic possesses excellent mechanical properties, while simultaneously possessing a wide band gap (5-7eV). The combination of properties opens the door for designs and fabrication of transparent structural ceramics. We use Current-Assisted Pressure Activated Densification (CAPAD), to achieve high heating rates, and comparatively short hold-times, which leads to ceramics with fine grain sizes. This affords the opportunity to investigate, the effects of dopant type and dopant concentration resultant microstructure (grain size, phases and phase ratios). We will discuss how the understanding of the interplay between bulk mechanical and optical properties can lead to a structural ceramic with tunable optical and mechanical properties.