Deriving Value from Challenging Waste Materials: Recycling and Sustainability Joint Session: Deriving Value from Challenging Waste II
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS Light Metals Division, REWAS Organizing Committee, TMS: Energy Committee, TMS: Recycling and Environmental Technologies Committee
Program Organizers: John Howarter, Purdue University; Elsa Olivetti, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Mingming Zhang, ArcelorMittal Global R&D; Randolph Kirchain, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Henry Colorado, Universidad de Antioquia

Thursday 8:30 AM
March 2, 2017
Room: 14B
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr

Session Chair: Randolph Kirchain, MIT; Henry Colorado, Universidad de Antioquia

8:30 AM  
Evaluation Of Battery Waste As Pigment: Henry Colorado1; German Ricaurte1; 1Universidad de Antioquia
    This paper presents the evaluation of battery waste as a potential pigment for ceramic materials. The battery waste used comes from the primary batteries, zinc-carbon and alkaline batteries. Battery waste powder characterized alone and mixed with TiO2 as reference color value. The thermal stability was studied with Thermo Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to investigate the powder morphology, as well as the microstructure evolution. Measurements of color coordinates L*a*b* were conducted using a spectrophotometer. The ceramic pigments prepared were subjected to different tests in order to evaluate its ceramic performance. Results showed that overall cobalt blue was the most stable component under high temperature and acidic environments.

8:50 AM  
Understanding Variability in Industrial Boiler Ash Waste for Use in Alkali Aluminosilicate Systems: Hugo Uvegi1; Piyush Chaunsali1; Rachel Osmundsen1; John Ochsendorf1; Elsa Olivetti1; 1Massachusetts Institute of Technology
    Throughout the developing world, many small and medium scale industries choose to produce energy by burning inexpensive, abundant agricultural wastes instead of more costly conventional energy sources such as coal, oil, and gas. Seasonal cycles of crop production yield high variability in boiler feedstock, with the bulk of the resultant ash subsequently dumped in local landfills. In Muzaffarangar, a small industrial city in northern India, this can mean hundreds of tons of ash landfill being produced daily. The objective of this work has been to perform physicochemical characterization of the ash in order to utilize it as the primary ingredient in sustainable masonry products, thereby creating value where there was originally only waste. Chemical activation of the boiler ash has been the focus of this investigation, with specific interest aimed at understanding the formation and presence of sodium and calcium aluminosilicate networks in the resulting brick samples.

9:10 AM  
Value-Added Processing of Tannic Acid and Related Waste Materials for Halogen-Free Flame Retardants: John Howarter1; Matthew Korey1; Gamini Mendis1; 1Purdue University
    In more recent years there has been a significant push from industry leaders to develop sustainable flame retardants in order to avoid using halogenated products. A wide variety of alternatives have been studied, and among these is tannic acid, a polyphenolic biomacromolecule, but studying the flame retardancy of tannic acid in many media is difficult due to its solubility and chemical heterogeneity. One solution to solubilize tannic acid is to functionalize the end groups of tannic acid with polymer compatible molecules. However, the dispersability, mechanical properties, and flame retardancy of chemically modified tannic acid in epoxy have yet to be investigated. In this study, tannic acid was modified using acetic anhydride to enhance its dispersability in an epoxy medium. The dispersability of the modified and unmodified particles were investigated as well as the mechanical properties and the flame retardancy of the modified and unmodified composites.

9:30 AM  
Synthesis of New Arsenic Adsorbents from Waste Water of Steel Processing Plant: H Sheng1; J. Shang1; 1University of Illinois
    Waste water of steel processing plant may contain a significant amount of heavy metal ions and thus pose serious environmental and health threat if not properly treated. Traditionally, such waste water is treated by simple chemical precipitation which may result in a large amount of solid waste with very little recovery value, crowding the very limited space for landfills. To reduce the solid waste and to recover the metallic elements in the waste water, nanostructured metal oxides were synthesized from the waste water of a steel processing plant and tested for arsenic adsorption. By controlling the synthetic chemistry and processing conditions, arsenic adsorbents with very high adsorption capacity were developed. The outlook for extending the lab study to large scale commercial applications is discussed.

9:50 AM Break

10:10 AM  
Recycling of Glass Polishing Sludge into Heavy Clay Ceramic: Carlos Maurício Vieira1; Pâmela Busch1; Juliana Licurgo1; Sergio Monteiro1; 1State University of the North Fluminense
    This work has as its objective to evaluate the effect of the incorporation of a glass polishing waste into heavy clay ceramic, such as bricks and roofing tiles. Formulations were prepared with incorporation of the waste in amounts up to 40 wt.% into a kaolinitic clay. Rectangular specimens were prepared by uniaxial mold-press at 20 MPa and fired at 900, 950 and 1000°C. The waste was characterized by X-ray fluorescence, optical dilatometry and particle size distribution. The physical and mechanical properties evaluated were: linear shrinkage, water absorption and flexural rupture strength. The microstructure of the fired ceramics was evaluated by optical microscopy. The results showed that the waste incorporation significantly improved both the water absorption and the mechanical strength of the ceramic, mainly at 1000oC. Finally, the heavy clay ceramic sector can be an environmental correct solution to this type of waste instead of its disposal in landfill.

10:30 AM  Cancelled
Synthesis and Characterization of Ferrochromium Slag Based Glass-ceramics: Zhitao Bai1; Mei Zhang1; Min Guo1; 1University of Science and Technology Beijing
    Glass-ceramics have been successfully prepared from ferrochromium slag (FS) and waste glass (WG), and the microstructural characterization and mechanical properties of the glass-ceramics were subsequently investigated. The development of FS-based glass-ceramics involves the nucleation and crystallization stages from the parent glass. With the increase in mass ratio of FS and WG (R(H/W)) from 0.60 to 1.67, the number of bridging oxygens of Si in the parent glass is reduced, as shown via Raman spectroscopy. Thus, their degree of polymerization decreases with it, and the temperature of nucleation and crystallization increase, which is consistent with the DSC results. The SEM images and EDS results indicate that the increasing value of R(H/W) decreases the crystal grain size and consequently increases the microhardness of the glass-ceramics. But the porosity simultaneously increases, which makes the bending strength increase at first and subsequently decrease.

10:50 AM  Student
Reducing the Silica Content of Copper Slag by Flocculation and Reverse Flotation: Zhenya Xu1; 1Shanghai University
    Copper slag produced during copper smelting contains Fe, Cu and other valuable metal elements. It is need to recover valuable metal from copper slag for resource utilization value and protecting the ecological environment. Usually, oxidation modification treatment is needed before recovery the valuable metals from copper slag,but, Iron grade of oxidation modified copper slag is low, content of SiO2 is high, and further treatment is needed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of flocculation and reverse flotation process on the reduction of silicon. The experimental study on the flocculation and reverse flotation of the oxidation modified copper slag, the optimum conditions for the flocculation reverse flotation process were determined: humic acid sodium(2%)2.0mL,pH=9,starch (4%)4.0mL, laurylamine(2%)1.0mL. Iron grade of the iron concentrate that we get from this experiment is 52.84%,Si content fell to 7.88%, iron recovery rate of 78.35%.

11:10 AM  
Hydrometallurgical Processing of Copper Smelter Dust for Copper Recovery as Nanoparticles: A Review: Daniel Okanigbe1; 1Tshwane University of Technology (TUT)
    The waste copper smelter dust (CSD) is a rich secondary resource for copper as shown by the composition of the South African Palabora copper Smelter plant CSD that assayed 18.02, 13.36, 3.44 weight% copper, iron, sulphur etc. Studies on CSD have focused majorly on either dust characterization or treatment; among the alternative processes to treat waste copper smelter dust, the hydrometallurgical routes without pretreatment and with pretreatment, such as oxidative roasting are considered quite attractive. The challenge of iron dissolution in these processes calls for adequate purification and control methodology before extraction of the metal as anodes or nano-particles. This review summarizes the process options adopted in the recovery of copper from waste copper smelter dust; with factors having a bearing on the process, such as kinetics and mechanism of reactions to provide a scientific basis for the current study to efficiently recover copper value from the Palabora CSD waste.