Energy Technologies: CO2 Management and Sustainable Metallurgical Processes
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS Light Metals Division, TMS: Energy Committee, TMS: Pyrometallurgy Committee
Program Organizers: Lei Zhang, University of Alaska Fairbanks ; Jaroslaw Drelich, Michigan Technological University; Neale Neelameggham, Ind LLC; Donna Guillen, Idaho National Laboratory; Nawshad Haque, CSIRO; Jingxi Zhu , Carnegie Mellon University; Ziqi Sun, Queensland University of Technology; Tao Wang, Nucor Steel; John Howarter, Purdue University; Fiseha Tesfaye, Åbo Akademi University

Thursday 8:30 AM
March 2, 2017
Room: 13
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr

Session Chair: Donna Guillen, Idaho National Laboratory; Cong Wang, Northeastern University; Fiseha Tesfaye, Åbo Akademi University

8:30 AM  Invited
Large Scale Energy Storage through Heat Balance Shifts at Aluminium Smelters: Mark Taylor1; 1University of Auckland
    Aluminium smelters and other industries have increasingly suffered in recent years from an inflexibility in regard to the quantum of power required continuously in their operation. A need to reduce electricity supply by 10-20% at a smelter causes major disruption or interruption, including to its customers and surrounding communities. This applies equally to smelters whatever their size and technology because of the uncontrolled heat dissipation from each smelting cell. A patented technology for regulating heat dissipation now exists for smelters. This technology allows extraction of more heat from cells, but also controlled insulation if the cell heat dissipation must be reduced. The opportunity to turndown amperage in response to changing power availability, or in response to changing power or metal prices now exists. The practicality and degree of the heat balance shift required to achieve this turn down (and turn up) capability is explored in this paper.

9:00 AM  Invited
Transforming the Way Electricity is Consumed during the Aluminium Smelting Process: Mark Dorreen1; Linda Wright2; Geoff Matthews3; Pretesh Patel4; David Wong1; 1Light Metals Research Centre, The University of Auckland; 2One World Consulting Limited; 3Energia Potior Limited; 4Auckland Uniservices Limited
    This paper examines the potential impact the newly developed EnPot aluminium smelter technology could have on the sustainability and economics of primary aluminium production. It also explores how the EnPot technology can be used to help the aluminium smelting industry to be part of the solution of accommodating increased intermittency in our future renewable energy generation, post COP 21. The EnPot system provides for the first time, dynamic control of the heat balance of aluminium smelting pots across the potline, so that energy consumption and aluminium production can be increased or decreased by as much as plus or minus 30% almost instantaneously. This enables a new way of thinking to emerge when considering the relationship the aluminium smelter plays in connection to the power grid.

9:20 AM  Invited
Disordered 3D Multi-layer Graphene Anode Material from CO2 for Sodium-Ion Batteries: Hui (Claire) Xiong1; Kassiopeia Smith1; Wei Wei2; Yun Hang Hu2; 1Boise State University; 2Michigan Technological University
    We report the application of disordered 3D multi-layer graphene material, synthesized directly from CO2 gas via its reaction with Li at 550 ˚C, as an anode for sodium-ion battery for a sustainable and greener future. Furthermore, the intercalation of sodium into the defective graphene structure is discussed through electrochemical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and small-angle X-ray scattering experiments. The disordered multi-layer graphene electrode demonstrated a promising rate capability and cyclibility. The novel approach to synthesize disordered 3D multi-layer graphene from CO2 gas make it attractive not only as an anode material for sodium-ion batteries but also to mitigate CO2 emission.

9:40 AM  
Power Generation Using Combined In-situ Combustion with CO2 Separation and Sequestration: Subodh Das1; Jeff Saey2; 1Phinix,LLC; 2University of Kentucky
     The current practice of producing electricity by transporting underground fossil fuels (coal mining, oil and natural gas drilling) above ground; followed by above ground combustion and subsequent underground CO2 sequestration; has historically presented cost and environmental problems for handling, processing and disposing large quantities of undesirable CO2 emissions and ash. The proposed transformational and marketplace disruptive technology, leaves CO2 and ash generated from in-situ combustion of fossil fuels underground for subsequent local separation and sequestration, transports thermal energy from the underground combustion to above ground, for power generation. It is expected that the proposed concept will be more cost effective and energy efficient than the conventional process while eliminating CO2 emissions. If successfully implemented, this concept may have impact similar to horizontal mining and hydraulic fracturing on enhancing U.S. energy security. This paper will discuss some of the preliminary calculations.

10:00 AM Break

10:15 AM  Invited
The Thermodynamics of Slag Forming Inorganic Phases in Biomass Combustion Processes: Daniel Lindberg1; Fiseha Tesfaye1; 1Åbo Akademi University
    To reduce the use of fossil fuels and increase self-sufficiency in energy, nowadays, there is an increasing interest to produce energy mainly from renewable resources. Solid biomass is one of the most important renewable energy sources for meeting this target. However, fouling, slagging, and corrosion threaten long-term operation availability and costs of biomass power plants. Slags accumulated on the surfaces of superheaters, which decrease thermal efficiency, often constitute a considerable percentage of complex inorganic phases. However, thermodynamic properties of the complex inorganic phases and their combined effect, which will help to deal with the slag related problems during high-temperature biomass combustion processes, are not well known. In the present paper, thermodynamic properties of K-, Ca-, and Na-based inorganic phases and their mixtures under different gas conditions are both critically reviewed and experimentally studied. The obtained results are presented and discussed.

10:35 AM  
Leaching of Sb from TROF Furnace Doré Slag: Petteri Halli1; Simon Jolivet2; Andreas Klöfverskjöld1; Petri Latostenmaa3; Benjamin Wilson1; Mari Lundström1; 1Aalto University; 2Polytech Grenoble; 3Boliden Harjavalta
    Doré slag is secondary product of copper electrorefining anode slime treatment. The slag consists mainly of different slag formers, such as borax and silica based minerals together with soda and traces of sealing materi-als. However, Doré slag also contains metals present in the anode slime, such as Ag, Cu, Bi, Sb and Te. At some plants, slag cleaning has been con-ducted utilizing conventional grinding and flotation circuits in order to en-rich the content of precious metals in the slag. Nevertheless, the routine consideration of the slag as a secondary raw material has so far not been adopted on an industrial scale. The current study presents the preliminary results of the nitric acid and chloride leaching of antimony from Doré slag. Chemical and mineralogical analyses (SEM-EDS, AAS, XRD) were performed for the raw material, leaching residue, and leaching solution in order to as-certain the metal recovery and kinetics during leaching.

10:55 AM  Invited
Potential CO2 Emission Reduction and H2 Production Using Industrial Slag Wastes Originating from Different Industrial Sectors: Jinichiro Nakano1; James Bennett1; Anna Nakano1; 1US Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory
    Gasification and metallurgical industries typically use coal and petroleum coke as carbon sources in the production of power, chemicals, and metals - processing which releases large quantities of CO2 and slag as waste by-products. Slag generated by these processes is comprised of non-volatile components from the feedstock, additives, and/or process ore impurities. Previous research demonstrated that by mixing gasification and metallurgical slags at a specific ratio in a CO2 enriched environment, enough exothermic heat was generated to transform CO2 to CO which could be used for energy or chemical production to reduce overall carbon emission. In this study, computational simulations were explored to optimize process conditions based on effects of individual slag constituents, adiabatic flame temperatures, and thermal input. In simulated conversions of CO2 to CO and H2O to H2; comparisons were made for slag FeO vs. V2O3 and for the present approach vs. traditional heat recovery.

11:15 AM  
Absorption of Atmospheric CO2 Using Banana Peel Waste: Ajit Gaikwad1; Krishna Vootla1; Likhith Nalluri1; A.K.M. Monayem Mazumder1; Ramesh Guduru1; 1Lamar University
    Among various alkaline solutions, K2CO3 has attracted more attention due to low heat of reaction, low toxicity, and large capacity and high selectivity for CO2 absorption. In the present research, we have obtained a K2CO3 based sorbent via thermal treatment of banana peel and then characterized for particle structure, morphology and chemistry using SEM, EDXA and FTIR techniques. This sorbent was then added to de-ionized water to perform CO2 absorption experiments in a closed chamber while circulating the atmospheric air via a CO2 sensor. The pH and conductivity of the sorbent solutions were measured before and after the CO2 absorption experiments, and then correlated to the amount of CO2 absorbed in order to understand the effect of initial pH on the kinetics of CO2 absorption process. These studies demonstrate a low cost solution for sequestration of CO2 while utilizing the organic waste from banana peel.