Recent Advances in Printed Electronics and Additive Manufacturing: 2D/3D Functional Materials, Fabrication Processes, and Emerging Applications: Functional Materials and 2D/3D Devices III
Sponsored by: TMS Functional Materials Division, TMS: Thin Films and Interfaces Committee
Program Organizers: Pooran Joshi, Elbit Systems of America; Rahul Panat, Carnegie Mellon University; Yong Lin Kong, University of Utah; Tolga Aytug, Oak Ridge National Laboratory; Konstantinos Sierros, West Virginia University; Changyong Cao, Michigan State University; David Estrada, Boise State University; Nuggehalli Ravindra, New Jersey Institute of Technology

Tuesday 8:00 AM
March 1, 2022
Room: 303C
Location: Anaheim Convention Center

Session Chair: David Estrada, Boise State University; Konstantinos Sierros, West Virginia University; David Bird, US Army

8:00 AM  Invited
Enabling Sustainability and Circularity Through Big Area Additive Manufacturing: Katie Copenhaver1; Meghan Lamm1; Matthew Korey1; Mitchell Rencheck1; Xianhui Zhao1; Halil Tekinalp1; Soydan Ozcan1; 1Oak Ridge National Laboratory
    Big area additive manufacture (BAAM) is an energy-efficient additive manufacturing (AM) approach that enables production of complex parts at rates 200 times faster than conventional AM. Through BAAM, sustainable, bio-based feedstocks can be printed into large-scale products for a variety of applications in the wind energy, automotive, marine, etc. industries. By incorporating, bio-based fillers into these feedstocks’ material properties can be enhanced furthering the application space of BAAM of bio-based feedstocks. Alternatively, BAAM can be used for re-manufacturing of large end of life (EoL) parts such as composite door panels, molds, etc. In this case EoL composite materials, are given opportunities to either be recycled into the same product, a different product, or down-cycled. BAAM can create avenues for industry to incorporate bio-based composites into everyday practice and provide the opportunity to re-use EoL composites, both of which are adoptable strategies to improve sustainability and circularity within industrial operations.

8:25 AM  
Electrohydrodynamic Printing as an Enabler for High Resolution Deposition: Direct and Hybrid Printing Strategies: Harrison Loh1; Konstantinos Sierros1; 1West Virginia University
    Additive manufacturing strategies such as direct ink writing are highly researched because of the potential to supplement and enhance current microfabrication processes by reducing material usage, increasing design flexibility, and reducing overall cost and time. Electrohydrodynamic printing (e-jet) can further enhance the fabrication capabilities of printing methods via control over very small volumes of chosen ink systems. Understanding the impact of parameters involved in e-jet such as the applied voltage, ink composition, and standoff distance provide methods of higher-resolution patterning than what may be obtained via alternative approaches. Hybrid deposition strategies are hereby illustrated, utilizing e-jet as a low-cost masking approach combined with methods such as dip-coating and electron beam evaporation for patterning material types from liquid exfoliated nanosheets such as graphene to metallic films. In this way, hybrid deposition approaches provide a route to extend the utility and application of e-jet for the micropatterning of dispersions of functional materials.

8:45 AM  
Engineered Low Density Polymers Within Additively Manufactured Polyacrylates: Elbert Caravaca1; David Bird1; Katlyn Hanson2; Nuggehalli Ravindra3; 1CCDC-Armament Center, FCDD-ACM-EP; 2LEIDOS; 3New Jersey Institute of Technology
    Foamed polymers are widely used as shock absorption and packaging materials. Typical foamed densities vary from 0.1 g/cm3 to 0.4 g/cm3. There is a need to explore foaming densities above 0.4 g/cm3 for propellants with highly engineered surface area for increased combustion performance. One way to achieve this is through highly controlled and engineered foam structures. The target of this work is to couple an ambient foaming method with additive manufacturing, specifically Vat-photopolymerization processing, to generate engineered foamed structures. In order to generate foam structures without the use of pressure or elevated temperature, alternate means of foaming are required. One method uses a chemical blowing agent, NaHCO3 and induces decomposition during the 3D printing process at ambient conditions. The second method uses an acid generator that relies on photosensitization of diaryliodonium salts via photoredox induced fragmentation mechanism to decompose CaCO3 at the optimal wavelength.

9:05 AM  Invited
Evaluation of Graphene Based Materials for Electromagnetic Shielding: Eugene Zakar1; Theodore Anthony1; Wayne Churaman1; Madan Dubey1; 1Army Research Laboratory
    Graphene has superior electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties over metals making them attractive as electromagnetic shielding for portable and wearable RF electronics in the frequency range 8-18 GHz. These 2D-materials are ultrathin, lightweight, flexible, and optically transparent up to a few layers in thickness, yet graphene has not yet reached its pinnacle potential due to challenges in achieving pristine quality properties. In particular, we compare the shielding effectiveness of single layer to multi-layer CVD grown graphene films and evaluate the development of graphene ink for the same purposes. Furthermore, ink technology will enable the adoption of additive manufacturing techniques for die and IC package shielding with multitude payoffs. We discuss the issues of graphene flake production, functionalization methods, binder selection, adhesion of inks to flexible substrates, and innovations that can lead to new pathways for graphene based materials.

9:30 AM Break

9:45 AM  
Imbibition Control of Polymer Solutions via Molecular Weight and Surface Functionalization onto Nanoporous Metal Media: Amm Hasib1; Bruno Azeredo1; 1Arizona State University
    Imbibition of polymeric fluid in nanoporous media is a key strategy driven by surface tension (e.g. capillary effect) that enables densification of polymer-metal nanocomposites for 3D printing such as binder jetting and fused filament deposition. This presentation first examines the wetting characteristics of a thermoplastic dissolved in a solvent onto a nanoporous copper powder bed as a function of its molecular weight and concentration, and the surface functionalization of the host metal. It is found that molecular weight and the solvent’s transient concentration regulates its viscosity which inhibits imbibition and densification, and that acidic or alkaline surface treatments regulate its contact angle and, consequently, its imbibition. Finally, composites formed are casted and dried to evaluated for their density, dynamic viscosity and microstructure, and its results are correlated with its wettability characteristics, effectively validating a materials design approach for enabling printing of conductive nanoporous metal tracks for 3D printing of electronics.

10:05 AM  Invited
Self-limiting Electrospray Deposition Post-processing with Functional Materials: Jonathan Singer1; 1Rutgers University
    In self-limiting electrospray deposition (SLED), specific manipulation of the electrostatic repulsion, hydrodynamic forces, and evaporation kinetics can be employed to conformally cover 3D architectures or targeted microscale electrodes with microcoatings. The generated coatings are hierarchical, possessing either nanoshell or nanowire microstructure. Having demonstrated the mechanism of the self-limiting effect, we have developed the ability to incorporate materials that would be otherwise incompatible with SLED into composite coatings. In this way, we have created a wide variety of functional systems, including: (1) bioactive, (2) plasmonic, and (3) electronically-active 2D materials coatings. This approach adds these functionalities to surfaces printed through other techniques either globally or selectively, such as incorporating sensing mechanisms or enhancing electrical properties. We envision this approach as a means to decouple the serial high fidelity lithographic step or rapid printing process of architectures from their final application, eliminating barriers to the manufacturing of nanomaterial-enabled devices.

10:30 AM  
NOW ON-DEMAND ONLY – Isolation of Monolayer Black Phosphorus for Additive Manufacturing of Optoelectronic Devices: Florent Muramutsa1; Ariel Briggs1; Joshua Wood2; Chad Husko2; Jonathan Logan2; Samuel Pedersen3; Brian Jaques3; David Estrada4; 1Boise State University; 2Iris Light Technologies, Inc.; 3Boise State University, Center for Advanced Energy Studies; 4Boise State University, Center for Advanced Energy Studies, Idaho National Laboratory
    Among two-dimensional (2D) materials, black phosphorus (BP) has emerged as a promising material in photonics and optoelectronics due to its direct bandgap and layer-dependent photon emission in the mid- to near- infrared (IR) wavelength range. Previously, we successfully synthesized bulk BP inks for deposition of optoelectronic devices via aerosol jet printing (AJP). In this work, we use density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGU) to isolate monolayer phosphorene from bulk BP solutions. Once sorted, we exchange the solvent of the monodisperse solution to AJP compatible solvents. Our solutions show good monodispersity and a photon emission wavelength of 620 nm. Our DGU model confirms the buoyant density range, DGU media, and surfactants required to isolate monolayer BP. This work demonstrates progress in processing bulk BP into monodisperse solutions for AJP of fine-tuned optoelectronic devices.