Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials: Poster Session
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS: Materials Characterization Committee
Program Organizers: Shadia Ikhmayies, Al Isra University; Bowen Li, Michigan Technological University; John Carpenter, Los Alamos National Laboratory; Jian Li, CanmetMATERIALS; Jiann-Yang Hwang, Michigan Technological University; Sergio Monteiro, Military Institute of Engineering ; Firrao Donato, Collegio Universitario, Italy; Mingming Zhang, ArcelorMittal Global R&D; Zhiwei Peng, Central South University; Juan P. Escobedo-Diaz, UNSW Australia; Chenguang Bai, Chongqing University; Eren Kalay, METU; Ramasis Goswami, Naval Research Laboratory; Jeongguk Kim, Korea Railroad Research Institute
Tuesday 6:00 PM
February 28, 2017
Room: Hall B1
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr
Session Chair: Eren Kalay, METU; Jian Li, CanmetMATERIALS
K-1: Characteristics of Stamp Charging Coke and Top Charging Coke: Bing Gao1; 1University of Science and Technology Beijing
The characteristics of top charging coke (coke 1) and stamp charging coke (coke 2) were investigated. The weight loss ratios of two kinds of cokes with and without alkalis were measured after reacting with CO2 under the temperature of 900℃, 1000℃, 1100℃ and 1200℃ respectively. The microstructures of original cokes were observed by SEM. The experiment results show that, with no addition of alkali, the weight loss ratios of coke 1 and coke 2 were nearly the same under the temperature of 900℃and1000℃. While the weight loss ratio of coke 2 was much larger than coke 1 under the temperature of 1200℃. With alkali-rich, the weight loss ratio of the two cokes was almost the same at 1100-1200℃.
K-2: Contribution to the β Relaxation Study of the HDPE, LDPE and LLDPE: Washington Oliani1; Luis Filipe Lima1; Harumi Otaguro2; Hélio Ferreto1; Ademar Lugao1; Duclerc Parra1; 1Nuclear Energy Research Institute – IPEN/USP; 2Universidade Federal de Uberlandia
The activation energy of the beta relaxation of three polyethylenes,LDPE, HDPE and LLDPE, was determined by means of dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Storage modulus and tan delta spectra were obtained as a function of the temperature from -60 oC to 50 oC with a heating rate of 2o min-1 at frequencies of 1, 2 and 5 Hz and measurement strain amplitude of 10-5. In the tan delta spectra, a small peak in the beta region of the three polyethylenes was found and substantiated by subtracting the growing exponential background. For the determination of the activation energy we have utilized the frequency versus the reciprocal of the absolute temperature peak of the tan delta. The values obtained for the three polyethylenes, LDPE, HDPE and LLDPE were, 362 ± 12 kJ mol-1 , 266 ± 9 kJ mol-1 and 197 ± 6 kJ mol-1,which were compared with those presented in the literature.
K-3: Synthesis and Structural Characterization of BaTiO3 Doped with Gd3+: Juan Pablo Hernández Lara1; Miguel Perez Labra1; Francisco Raúl Barrientos Hernández1; Alberto Arenas Flores1; José Antonio Romero Serrano2; Aurelio Hernández Ramírez2; Pandiyan Thangarasu3; 1Autonomous University of Hidalgo State; 2ESIQIE-IPN; 3National Autonomous University of México.
BaTiO3 doped with Gd3+, was synthesized from BaCO3, TiO2, and Gd2O3 as a powders using the solid state reaction method (Ba1-xGdxTi1-x / 4O3). The milling of the precursor was performed in an agate mortar with acetone as control means and compositions x = 0.001, 0.005, 0.05, 0.15, 0.25, 0.35 Gd3+ (wt. %). Firstly, the powder mixture was decarbonated at 900 °C for 8 hours, after it was sintered at 1400 °C for 5 hours. Tetragonality of synthesized BaTiO3 doped with Gd3+ was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy (RS). Subsequently, the powders sintered were uniaxially compacted cold until to obtain pellets of about 10 mm of diameter; which again were sintered at 1400 °C for 4 hours. XRD patterns and Raman spectra results revealed that the crystal phase of the obtained particles was predominately tetragonal BaTiO3.
K-5: Accelerated Degradation of the Polypropylene Inducing Thermal Aging: Rebeca Romano1; Washington Oliani1; Duclerc Parra1; Ademar Lugao1; 1Nuclear Energy Research Institute – IPEN/USP
Polypropylene (PP) is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic widely explored for its outstanding properties. However, its large-scale production generates large quantities of waste discarded into the environment. Thus arose the need to accelerate and control their degradation. The aims of this work is the understanding of the mechanism degradation of irradiated PP with gamma rays at different doses: 5, 12.5 and 20 kGy. The irradiated samples were exposed to accelerated thermal aging during 96 days at 100°C and characterized by SEM, TGA, DSC and FTIR. The irradiated samples showed intense oxidation with presence of surface cracks compared with the non-irradiated PP.
K-7: Automated Optical Microstructural Characterization of Thermal Spray Coatings: Satya Ganti1; Elizabeth Jenkins1; Rabi Bhattacharya1; Veeraraghavan Sundar1; 1UES Inc.
Thermally sprayed coatings are widely used to optimize surface behavior of materials in a wide variety of applications. The microstructures of these sprays are complex, and incorporate features and defects that are a result of composition and process parameters used. Porosity is a common feature of these sprayed coatings, and can affect a wide range of mechanical, thermal and electrical properties. This study extends the use of Robo-Met, an automated system for 3D materials characterization, into the realm of coatings analysis. The system collects microstructure information in an automated manner. Subsequent post processing using image analysis software can then be used to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze microstructural features and porosity. Thermal barrier coatings and coatings for abrasion resistance are both analyzed in this study. This study confirms the applicability of image analysis as a straightforward, versatile, reliable and inexpensive method for the characterization of coatings.
K-8: Effect of Exposure to Salt Spray in Multiple-use Mortars with Addition and Waste from Paper Production: Afonso Azevedo1; Jonas Alexandre2; Niander Aguiar2; Gustavo Xavier2; Sergio Monteiro3; Victor Souza4; Markssuel Marvila2; 1IFF; 2UENF; 3IME; 4UFF
The paper producing industry is responsible for the generation of a large amount of residue which is composed of cellulose and kaolin and extremely humid, thus affecting the durability of materials that could absorb this residue. The objective of this work is to study the effect of exposure to salt spray mortar specimens with and without addition of this residue and analyze their loss of mass and strength. They were fabricated prismatic specimens with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% incorporation of lime and after a curing time of 28 days they were subjected to immersion in chamber salt spray, where they were exposed to substances that simulate the aggressive environment, such as the coast. The results showed that the specimens with greater incorporation had a major change in its properties, such as loss of mass and strength, making them obtain results lower than those stipulated by Brazilian standards.
K-9: Effects of Wet Grinding on the Structure and Granularity of Biological Origin Aragonite and Its Polymorphic Transformation into Calcite: Tang Yunhui1; He Mingsheng2; 1Beijing University of Technology; 2R&D Center of WISCO
The structure and granularity of biological origin aragonite from abalone shell during wet grinding in a ball mill were studied with X-ray diffractometer, with morphology studied by scanning electron microscope(SEM). It is shown from the results that the particle sizes of aragonite decreased with grinding time, so did the X-ray diffraction (XRD) peak intensities, while the full widths at half maximum increased. A calcite XRD peak with low intensity and great width was observed in nearly all the samples with various grinding time, whereas the intensity of the peak increased obviously after grinding time 300 min. It is shown from the SEM results that the size of aragonite dropped with grinding time until it reached 20 nm and then kept constant, while that of calcite dropped first and then rose at the minimum about 10 nm until to the constant size as in aragonite. It was observed that the mineral content obtained from XRD show an obviously change that the calcite increases while aragonite decreases, which indicated the occurring of a polymorphic transformation of aragonite into calcite.
K-10: A Kinetic Model for the Growth of FeB and Fe2B Phases on the AISI M2 Borided Steel during the Powder-pack Boriding: Miguel Flores1; Martín Ortiz1; Oscar Gómez2; Milton Espinosa3; Joaquín Oseguera2; 1Escuela Superior de Ciudad Sahagún-Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo; 2Instituto Tecnológico y de Superiores de Monterrey campus Estado de México; 3Instituto Tecnológico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey-ITESM Campus Santa Fe
In this work, American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) M2 steel was pack borided in the temperature range of 1123-1273 K for treatment times between 2 and 8 hours. Assuming that the growth of the boride layers follows a parabolic law, a kinetic model was applied to evaluate the parabolic growth constant at each growing phase interface. In addtion, to extend the validity of the present model, two additional boriding conditions were done. The FeB and Fe2B layers grown on AISI M2 steel were characterized by use of the following experimental techniques: scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and the Daimler-Benz Rockwell-C indentation technique. Finally, the scratch and pin-on-disc tests for wear resistance were performed using a LG Motion Ltd and a CSM tribometer respectively under dry sliding conditions.
K-11: Addition of Cellulose Nanofibers in Reactive Powder Concrete: Felipe Machado1; Leonardo Pedroti1; Joao Vitor Lemes1; Gustavo Lima1; Lucas Fioresi1; Wellington Fernandes1; Rita Alvarenga1; Jonas Alexandre2; 1Universidade Federal de Vicosa; 2Universidade Estadual Norte Fluminense
Cellulose fibers are extracted from renewable sources and have potential to be used in various fields. In this study, a type of Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) was produced with the addition of Cellulose nanofibers (CNF), a biopolymer extracted from lignocellulosic materials. Three different concrete compositions were produced, each with addition of 0.10%, 0.20% and 0.25% of CNF in mass, proportionally to the cement’s mass. During the analysis were performed Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) tests, compressive strength and Young’s modulus tests after 1, 3, 7 and 28 days of production and shear and flexural strength after 28 days of production. The results showed that the addition of CNF in aqueous solution reduces the concrete’s workability and negatively affects mechanical properties.
K-12: Alkaline Decomposition of Synthetic Thallium Jarosite in NaOH and CaO Medium: Hernán Islas1; Francisco Patiño2; Iván Reyes3; Mizraim Flores4; Sayra Ordoñez1; Martín Reyes1; Elia Palacios5; Víctor Flores6; 1Universidad Áutonoma del Estado de Hidalgo; 2Universidad Politécnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo; 3Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí; 4Universidad Tecnológica de Tulancingo; 5Instituto Politécnico Nacional; 6Escuela Superior de Zimapán Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
This paper presents a study on the decomposition in alkaline media of thallium jarosite synthesized with the hydrothermal method. According to the characterization results, the obtained jarosite-type compound has the following approximate formula [Tl0.86(H3O)0.14]Fe3.11(SO4)2.11[(OH)6.11(H2O)0.44]. Its particles show a semi-spherical geometry with an average size of 38 μm. The decomposition experiments were performed in NaOH and CaO medium. For both reaction media, the decomposition curves show an induction period, followed by the progressive conversion period and the stabilization period. The experimental dots are consistent with the shrinking core kinetic model for spherical particles, where the chemical reaction controls the decomposition process. SEM-EDS studies performed on partially decomposed particles for both reaction media show that the particle core has not reacted and is surrounded by a layer of solid residues (ashes). XRD results of completely decomposed particles show that the ash layer is made of an amorphous compound.
K-13: Application of Membrane Separation Technology in Wastewater Treatment of Iron and Steel Enterprise: Lei Zhang1; 1Wuhan Iron and Steel Company
The membrane technology used in wastewater advanced treatment of iron and steel enterprise were investigated. Its advantages, disadvantages and the development tendency were discussed and some advice and prospects of membrane technology for wastewater treatment in iron and steel enterprise were pointed out.
K-14: Boiler Ashes Incorporation in Mixed Mortar Using Experimental Planning in Simplex Network: Marina Caetano1; Leonardo Pedroti1; Gustavo de Lima1; Igor Andrade1; Wellington Fernandes1; Rita Alvarenga1; Gustavo Xavier2; Afonso Azevedo2; Caio Torres1; Ricardo Almeida1; 1UFV; 2UENF
The civil construction sector consumes a large amount of natural resources. The balance between nature conservation and economic development is essential to ensure a sustainable development. This work aimed to reuse ashes from a boiler of Universidade Federal de Viçosa in mixed mortar, used for sealing masonry, to verify the best combination of its properties through experimental planning in simplex network. Several experiments were made, such as SEM, EDX, XRD, pozzolan content, specific mass, water absorption, bending and compression trials, to characterize the material. Seven experimental points with maximum content of cement, sand and residue of 20, 80 and 20%, in mass, respectively, were taken to outline the response surface. The samples analyzed showed a significant improvement of the physical characteristics and few changes in the amount of water to the same consistency until a certain percentage of residue added, revealing that the residue can be a viable alternative regarding the reduction of environmental problems.
K-15: Brillouin Scattering Study on Elastic Properties of Bulk hcp ZnO Single Crystal: Pingping Fan1; YongQuan Wu1; 1Shanghai University
The polarized Brillouin scattering spectra were systematically measured to study the elastic properties of bulk hexagonal close-packed (hcp) ZnO single crystal in this paper. The peak polarizations of all modes in spectra were analyzed firstly. The elastic properties, such as the whole set of Elastic constants, Poisson’s ratio, Young modulus and etc., were accordingly calculated and compared with the previous literatures. Also investigated were the effects of the rotation of the sample in the (0001) plane perpendicular to the z axis on different acoustic modes. The results show that the quasi-longitudinal and quasi-transverse modes in the (0001) plane act as the expected trigonometric function of the rotation angle, while the longitudinal and transverse modes remain constant.
K-16: Characterization and Leaching Proposal of Ag ( I) from a Zn Concentrate in a S2O32- - O2 Medium: Aislinn Teja Ruiz1; Julio Juárez Tapia1; Leticia Hernández Cruz1; Martín Reyez Pérez1; Uriel Flores Guerrero1; Ivan Reyes Dominguez1; Eliecer Mendez1; 1Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
The present study shows the characterization of a zinc concentrate collected at Hidalgo State, Mexico, in order to identify its mineralogical species and to propose a leaching methodology for silver recovery. The results obtained by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) show Sphalerite (ZnS) as the mineralogical matrix and silver into the specie Xhantoconite (Ag3AsS3). The techniques of Scanning Electron Microscopy - Energy Dispersive Microanalysis (SEM-EDS) and Polarized Optical Microscopy (POM) identified the presence of sulfides of Fe, Cu, Pb and Zn, in addition to silicates and feldspar. The proposed dissolution method of Ag (I) was carried out with [S2O3-2]= 0.5 M and [NaOH]= 0.1 M to regulate the medium at pH = 9 for 12 hours at 298 K. Oxidation of the concentrate was favored by injection of O2 to a partial pressure of 1 atm. Monitoring of the reaction was carried out by reading the [Ag] and [As] by AAS.
K-17: Characterization of Mercury Jarosite: Sayra Ordoñez1; Francisco Patiño2; Mizraim Flores3; Iván Reyes4; Elia Palacios5; Víctor Flores6; Martín Reyes1; Ister Mireles3; Hernán Islas1; 1Universidad Áutonoma del Estado de Hidalgo; 2Universidad Politécnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo; 3Universidad Tecnológica de Tulancingo; 4Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí; 5Instituto Politécnico Nacional; 6Escuela Superior de Zimapán Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
This paper presents the characterization of mercury jarosite synthesized by slowly adding Hg(NO3)2·H2O into a Fe2(SO4)3·nH2O solution. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses performed on the sample confirm that the compound presents a crystal phase corresponding to mercury jarosite. Analysis through Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) determined that the precipitate is composed of mercury, sulfur, iron and oxygen forming spherical particles with an average size of 38 μm; they are made of rhombohedral micro-crystals with sizes ranging between 1 and 2 μm. Chemical characterization was performed through dichromatometry analysis, gravimetry and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), thus obtaining the following composition: 27 % Fe3+, 37 % SO42- , 14 % Hg2+, 22 % OH- + H3O+ + H2O. The following approximate formula of the compound was determined from the chemical analysis: [Hg0.39(H3O)0.22]Fe2.71(SO4)2.17(OH)4.79(H2O)2.09.
K-18: Chemical and Mineralogical Characterization of a Mixed Sulphide Ore at Zimapan, Hidalgo: Laura Angeles1; Martín Reyes1; Miguel Pérez1; Elia Palacios2; Francisco Patiño3; Ivan Reyes4; Mizraim Flores5; 1Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo; 2Instituto Politécnico Nacional.; 3Universidad Politécnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo.; 4Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí.; 5Universidad Tecnológica de Tulancingo
Chemical and mineralogical characterization of a sulphide ore from the mining district of Zimapan, Hidalgo was performed, in order to obtain accurate information on the composition of the ore to optimize the subsequent flotation process. A combination of techniques was used: SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) with Energy Dispersive (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The SEM mapping confirmed the presence of the elements: C, O, Ca, Si, Fe, K, S, Al, Zn, Mg and Mn. The XRD analysis suggests that the ore matrix is calcite; additional species founded were wollastonite, johannsenite, and pyrite, among other impurities. The FTIR analysis performed for the aqua regia insoluble showed the presence of calcium oxide, copper oxide and silicon oxide. The results for the ICP analysis were:13.31% S, 0.46% Zn, 0.03% Cu, 0.06% Pb, 0.07% Mn, 0.09% As, 0.01% Sb, 0.01% W and 0.08 grton-1 Ag.
K-19: Brazilian Bentonite Characterization Aiming Their Use in Clay/Polymer Nanocomposites: Francisco Valenzuela-Diaz1; Dijalma Dias2; Rogerio Sakahara1; Guilherme Cardoso1; Kilça Botelho3; Gabriel Machado1; Maria das Graças Silva-Valenzuela4; Julio Harada4; 1Universidade de Sao Paulo; 2IPEN; 3UNIGRAN/USP; 4UFABC
Clay/polymer nanocomposites are a new clase material that has been gaining increasing attention from academia and industry due to the increase of property obtained. In this work a Brazilian bentonite from the state of Paraiba was characterized, before and after being subjected to chemical modification with quaternary ammonium salt, by techniques such as XRD, XRF, IR, SEM and swelling in water and in organic liquids. Polypropylene and organophilic clay were mixed at a ratio of 5 mass% of clay, in a thermokinetic machine with mixing time of about 5 minutes. The homogeneous mass obtained was ground in a knife mill grinder and samples were shaped by injection. The obtained samples were characterized by assays such as XRD, IR, SEM, ATD/ATG and mechanical tests. They were obtained mechanical and temperature resistance gains compared to the pristine polymer.
K-20: Characterization of a Bentonitic Clay amd Its Use in Bleaching Brazilian Nut Oil: Alexandre Machado1; Jivaldo Matos1; Flavio Carvalho1; Adriano Araujo1; Christiano Gianesi Bastos Andrade1; Maria das Graças Silva-Valenzuela2; Francisco Valenzuela-Diaz1; 1Universidade de Sao Paulo; 2Universidade Federal do ABC
Acid activated clays are used for oils refining processes and in most cases are obtained from bentonites. The Brazil nut oil, from Amazon rainforest have multiple potential uses. In food, as lubricant in modern aircraft, as well as in the manufacture of fine soaps and cosmetics. The present study shows the characterization of the acid activated clay obtained from a light green bentonite from Boa Vista, Paraiba, Brazil, before being attacked with HCl acid. The characterization was made by XRD, IR, SEM, stereomicroscopy, Foster swelling in water, Brazilian nut oil sorption, thermal analysis, and XRF. Raw Brazilian nut oil was bleached with the acid activated clay. The activated clay used provided greater bleaching capacity than a commercial activated clay.
K-21: Characterization of Biodegradable Mulch Black Films Incorporated with Organics Fertilizers and Rice Husk Ash: Julio Harada1; Camila Amorim1; Paula Braga1; Abner Cabral Neto2; José Ricardo Macedo3; Luci Diva Machado1; Leonardo Silva1; Derval Rosa3; 1IPEN-CNEN/SP; 2Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie; 3Universidade Federal do ABC
This present work aimed to evaluate the effects of organic fertilizer and silicon dioxide, both from renewable resources, incorporated in biodegradable mulch films. The morphological, mechanical, and thermal properties based on PBAT/PLA composites with 2 % wt. of carbon black were investigated. In addition, the formulations were prepared with 1 % wt. to 3 % wt. silicon dioxide and 1 % wt. to 3 % wt. organic fertilizer. The samples were produced by melt extrusion process, using a twin screw extruder machine and blown film extrusion process. According to the results it is possible to apply this composite as film for agricultural protection.
K-22: Characterization of Polyamide 6 with Coloidal Silicon Dioxide (Aerosil®) Irradiated and Non Irradiated: Camila Amorim1; Julio Harada1; Jessica Moura2; Waldir Ferro3; Leonardo Silva1; 1IPEN-CNEN/SP; 2Rhodia Poliamida e Especialidades Ltda; 3Radici Plastics Ltda
To evaluate the development of polymers with new fillers, colloidal silicon dioxide (AEROSIL®) was used in polyamide 6 (PA 6). AEROSIL® is an amorphous substance with low density that meets the consumer’s demands concerning their applications as fillers. For this study, compounds of PA 6 with three different percentages of AEROSIL®: 1 %, 3 %, and 6 % was used. All samples were irradiated with electron beam at different doses. In addition, the effects of the ionizing irradiation in morphological properties such as scanning confocal electron microscopy (SCEM), X-Ray Diffraction and Absorption Spectroscopy Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) were studied, and were compared with non irradiated samples. In this present work, crystal structures, chemical and physical properties changes were observed, before and after irradiation. The results demonstrated that 3 % was the best formulation of AEROSIL®.
K-23: Characterization of Steel Production Dust and Their Use in Structural Ceramics: Alexandre Machado1; Jivaldo Matos2; Flavio Carvalho2; Adriano Araujo3; Maria das Graças Silva-Valenzuela4; Francisco Valenzuela-Diaz2; 1INOVAT/USP; 2Universidade de Sao Paulo; 3Universidade Federal de Sergipe; 4Universidade Federal do ABC
Electric arc furnace steel dust is a by-product of the steelmaking process and contains high amounts of iron and zinc and significant amounts of lead, chromium, and cadmium and others chemical compounds in minor proportion. However, the material recycling is very complex, mainly due to their mineralogical composition. In this study the characterization, and application of this material is presented. Ceramics were produced with clay and variable amounts of steel dust. The bulk material was fired between 800 C and 1000C. The influence to insertion of this material on the ceramic composition on the mechanical strength, linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density and bending strength of the ceramic samples was investigated. A blend of clay with 5% dust presents potential for use in structural ceramics production.
K-24: Charpy Toughness Behavior of Jute Fabric Reinforced Polyester Matrix Composites: Foluke de Assis1; Sergio Monteiro1; Artur Pereira1; Fabio Braga1; 1Military Institute of Engineering
The jute fiber is one of the most investigated natural lignocellulosic fibers due to its easy processing and extensive occurrence. However, the studies with some varieties of jute fiber such as the Corchorus capsularis are rare, so this work investigated the toughness behavior of polyester matrix composites reinforced with up to 30% in volume of a fabric made of jute fiber by means of Charpy impact tests. It was found that the addition of jute fabric results in a marked increase in the absorbed energy by the composites. Macroscopic observation of the post-impact specimens and SEM fracture analysis showed that transversal rupture through the jute fabric interface with the polyester matrix is the main mechanism for the remarkable toughness of these composites.
K-25: Clay: Characterization and Evaluation of the Application Potential: Gustavo Lima1; Leonardo Pedroti1; Wellington Fernandes1; Jonas Alexandre2; Afonso Azevedo2; Carlos Maurício Vieira2; 1Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV; 2Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro
In Brazil, it is estimated that there are more than 6,000 ceramic industries operating in various technological levels. With the increase in the consumer market demands, it is essential to carry out studies to characterize the raw materials and the development and improvement of ceramic products. The aim of this study was to identify and characterize the clay minerals present in a clay sample from the Visconde do Rio Branco city in Minas Gerais - Brazil, using chemical analysis, XRD, TGA and DTA. The results of the analysis were presented and discussed about the potential application of the material based on the Winkler diagram.
K-26: Determination of Ten Impurity Elements in Tin Concentrate and Smelting Products by ICP-AES: Yunke Wang1; Ping Long1; Jian Wu1; Wenli Zhang1; Peipei Liu1; Xinlin Ren1; Bin Yang1; 1Kunming University of Science and Technology
In this research, ICP-AES was used for determining ten impurity elements (Fe, Pb, Ca, Mg, Cu, Zn, Al, As, Sb, and Bi) in tin concentrate and smelting products, such as crude tin and slag. Samples were dissolved by hydrochloric acid and nitric acid. Determination conditions were investigated in detail. Influences of matrix and coexisting elements were eliminated by selecting proper analysis spectral lines. Under the optimum conditions, the correlation coefficient of calibration curves were higher than 0.999. The detection limits of these ten impurities were in the range between 0.0009 to 0.0579 μg·ml-1. Relative standard deviation (RSD) values were lower than 6.0%, and the recoveries of standard addition were between 85% and 109%. The proposed method was demonstrated to be reliable by comparing with standard analysis methods and certified values of standard sample. It could be applied for determining impurity elements in tin concentrate and smelting products successfully.
K-27: Effects of Magnetic Field Curing on Microactuation of Magnetorheological Elastomers Based on Iron–natural Rubber Nanocomposites: Imaddin Al-Omari1; M P Vasudevan2; P M Sudeep3; Philip Kurian3; P M Ajayan4; T N Narayanan5; M R Anantharaman3; 1Sultan Qaboos University; 2Sree Sankara Vidya Peetom College; 3Cochin University of Science and Technology; 4Rice University; 5TIFR Centre for Interdisciplinary Sciences
The incorporation of nanoparticles of iron in a natural rubber matrix leads to flexible magnetorheological (MR) materials. Rod-shaped MR elastomers based on natural rubber and nanosized iron have been moulded both with and without the application of an external magnetic field during curing. These MR elastomer rods and filler material were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic properties were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometry. Microactuation studies were carried out by employing a laser Doppler vibrometer. It is seen that microactuation of field cured samples have been enhanced by two times when compared with that of zero field cured samples. The effect of alignment of magnetic particles during field-assisted curing was also studied by using a dynamic mechanical analyzer. A plausible model is put forwarded to explain the observed enhancement of actuation for field cured samples.
K-28: Electron Beam Effect on Mechanical and Thermical Properties of DGEBA/EPDM Composite: Anderson Mesquita1; Ian Cavalcante1; Traian Zaharescu2; Leonardo Silva1; 1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares - IPEN/USP; 2INCDIE, ICPE-CA
In order to characterize and irradiate the DGEBA/EPDM composite and compare their physical and chemical properties with the same DGEBA/EPDM composite without electron beam irradiation. The DGEBA/EPDM composite may be used to cover other materials such as polymers and protect it against intemperies and mechanical effort. The composites were obtained containing 0.0; 25.0 and 50.0% of DGEBA with a particle size 325 mesh. In addition the composites were irradiated with 200, 300, 400, 500 e 600 kGy with dose rate 20kGy/h, which were, determined thermical properties (DSC and Tg) and mechanical properties (tensile strength, hardness and tensile stress). In conclusion has shown the DGEBA/EPDM composite after electron beam irradiation might use for several applications due to improve their mechanical and thermical properties. Their properties are satisfactory for any application where is necessary a stronger material.
K-29: Efficient High-Resolution Study of Dissimilar Metal Interfaces: Genevieve Lee1; Jonathan Orsborn1; Antonio Ramirez1; 1The Ohio State University
Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction (TKD) or transmission Electron Backscatter Diffraction (t-EBSD) yields crystallographic information past 10nm resolutions--rivaling conventional Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) methods-–at significantly larger areas in mere hours. This emerging technique, conducted in Scanning Electron Microscopes (SEM), uses electron-transparent thin foils rather than bulk samples typical to EBSD. This simple change reduces interaction volume while conventional EBSD software, hardware, and procedures remain unchanged. Paired with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (XEDS), crystallography and chemical composition is simultaneously assessed with remarkable spatial resolution. Such capabilities are instrumental in studying dissimilar material joints. Particularly solid-state produced joints exhibiting sub-micron features, the TKD-XEDS combination allows study with unprecedented area coverage and resolution. For example: fine M(CN) precipitates (~50nm) were identified across Ni-alloy to steel Friction Stir Welds (FSW); intermetallics in Al-alloy to steel FSW and Vapor Foil Actuator Welds (VFAW). Therefore, this unique TKD-XEDS combination drives fast, efficient characterization supporting subsequent high-resolution TEM analyses.
K-30: Evaluation of Ballistic Armor Behavior with Epoxy Composite Reinforced with Malva Fibers: Lucio Nascimento1; Luane Ferreira Holanda1; Luis Henrique Leme Louro1; Sérgio Neves Monteiro1; Alaelson Vieira Gomes1; Édio Pereira Lima Júnior1; Fábio Braga1; 1Instituto Militar de Engenharia
In the present study it was used natural fibers malva (Urena lobata, Linn) in percentage of 0%, 15% and 30% in volume for ballistic application as reinforcement of epoxy matrix composites. It was evaluated the ballistic efficiency of these composites by measuring the trauma (indentation) in a clay witness block, simulating a human body (plasticine), after the impact of a 9mm ammunition, in order to compare with similar studies employing composite with other natural fibers and traditional materials like glass fibers, fabrics aramid Kevlar® and ultra high molecular weight polyethylene fibers Dyneema® used in vests for personal protection. The results showed by visual analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) that the main active rupture mechanism in composites is delamination of layers. In all groups tested the indentation in the plasticine was less than 44 mm, which is the value provided as lethal to humans by international standard NIJ 0101.06.
K-31: The Non-Isothermal Crystallization Behavior of Polyethylene/ calcium phosphate Composite: Andre Colonese1; Mônica Andrade2; Ana Silva3; Fernanda Silva4; 1INCQS-Fiocruz; 2IPRJ_UERJ; 3IMA-UFRJ; 4IQ-UFRJ
The kinetic crystallization study is a key matter for polymeric materials processing, since the material properties are impacted by crystalline content and morphology. It's well know that crystalline phase plays an important role in tensile and impact strength. Even though the kinetics of isothermal crystallization has been extensively investigated, practical processes, such as industry operations, proceed under non-isothermal conditions and isothermal crystallization are seldom applied. This work consists in a kinetic of non-isothermal crystallization study of polyethylene/calcium phosphate composites, a material with potential application in biomedical devices, prostheses or structures for tissue engineering. According to activation energy results, obtained by Kissinger and Ozawa methods, the calcium phosphate used hinder the crystallization, probably due the viscosity increase and favors the bioactivity of the composite produced. The Ozawa-Avrami method used was adequate to represent the polyethylene/calcium phosphate behaviour, because the correlation coefficient was close to one.
K-32: Evaluation of Durability of Red Ceramic Incorporated with Ornamental Stone Waste: Gustavo Xavier1; Jonas Alexandre1; Afonso Azevedo1; Sergio Monteiro1; Leonardo Pedroti1; Helloa Ferreira1; 1UENF
In the cutting process for diamond wire of stone blocks in plates, produces a fine powder predominant between 230 mesh and 325 mesh, non-biodegradable, with the chemical composition of similar powder to the ceramic body used in red ceramic products in the Campos region -RJ. From this characteristic similarity, it was incorporated the ornamental stone waste in the clay of up to 10% by mass. The samples shaped by pressing in the dimensions of 11,0x2,5x1,0 cm3 were fired at 750°C, 850°C and 950°C and subjected to technological testing. To evaluate the technological properties of the samples after 100 wetting and drying cycles, it was used the Weibull statistics to determine the firing temperature of the ceramic materials which, after 100 cycles obtained the lower strength losses. The Weibull modulus higher homogeneity for samples indicated with 5% waste, fired at 950°C, meaning more durability.
K-33: Evaluation of Elastic Properties by Impulse Excitation Technique in Epoxy Composites Reinforced with Coir Fiber: Fernanda da Luz1; Sérgio Monteiro1; 1Military Institute of Engineering, IME
Composites reinforced with lignocellulosic fibers may show high dispersion in their properties due to their heterogenity, which depends on several factors such as plant age, where the fibers were taken from the plant and planting conditions. Hence, the estimative of the elastic properties by standard tests (destructive) may not reproduce the real results of the composite. In the present work the elastic properties were evaluated through a non-destructive ultrasonic testing. The elastic propeties homogeneity were analyzed throughout the composite's length as well as the influence of different volume fractions of coir fibers used as reinforcement in the composite. Moreover, to verify the sensitivity of the ultrasonic method, samples were tested by destructive mechanical tests. Based on the results it was observed that the properties obtained by ultrasonic showed small variations, unlike the results of the destructive tests that presented high dispersion justified by the heterogeneous nature of lignocellulosic fibers.
K-34: Wood-to-concrete Joints Using Steel Connectors: Experimental Evaluation: Juliano Correa1; Rita de Cássia Alvarenga1; Beatryz Mendes1; Márcio Moreira1; 1Universidade Federal de Viçosa
The last decades have seen great development of modern technologies with the use of wood in construction. Attention should be given to the flooring systems solution that use T-shaped beams made of wood and concrete. This work describes an experimental investigation in which round steel bars were used to connect timber to concrete. Symmetric, three-member specimens were built; the outside pieces were wood, the inside was made of concrete. The connectors consisted of straight pins with heads, cut from the bars, inserted normally to the wood surface and shaped like arches. These specimens were tested in compression and force-displacement diagrams and strenght data were obtained. The diagrams gave information on the fracture process and the stiffness that may be related to the ultimate and service limit states. The obtained results showed strength was high in all cases, with ductile process. It was also found arch-shaped connectors gave stiffer joints.
K-35: Evaluation of the Pozzolanic Activity of Residue from the Paper Industry: Afonso Azevedo1; Jonas Alexandre2; Lucio Petrucci1; Euzébio Zanelato2; Thainá Oliveira2; 1IFF; 2UENF
The paper and pulp industry is responsible for generating large amounts of solid waste, which are produced during various stages of the production process. Currently this material has varied disposal, such as landfills and others have costs the company. Furthermore, cement, mortars and concretes which constitutes represents a great economic and environmental costs. This study aims to determine the pozzolanic activity index in the residue studied to verify its viability in the incorporation of the same in cement. It will be used Luxan method for this determination. The data found show that the material has the possibility cement incorporation into traces of mortar, due to its pozzolanic activity index.
K-36: Evaluation of the Properties of the Adhesive Mortar in the Fresh State with Addition of Glass Waste: Diogo Santos1; Afonso Azevedo2; Jonas Alexandre1; Sergio Monteiro1; Gustavo Xavier1; Beatryz Mendes3; Leonardo Pedroti3; Lucio Petrucci4; Marta Prellwitz4; 1UENF; 2IFF; 3UFV; 4UCAM
The glass cutting industry is responsible for the generation of large amounts of waste during the stages of cutting and polishing. The disposal of this material generates a cost companies end up looking for ways to repackage it, so there is the possibility of incorporating it into mortar adhesive. The objective of this work is the characterization of waste and assessment of the properties of these mortars, fresh, verifying the possibility of their use. As for characterization, granulometry tests were performed, bulk density and pozzolanic activity for the tests already in the fresh state were determined entrained air content, water retention and consistency index. incorporated were 0, 10, 15 and 20% in the quantity of sand. The results showed that featured material has potential for use in adhesive mortar, with values within the limits stipulated by Brazilian standards.
K-37: Experimental Evaluation of the Influence of Mortar’s Mechanical Properties on the Behavior of Clay Masonry: Rita Alvarenga1; Gustavo Nalon1; Lucas Fioresi1; Mônica Pinto1; Leonardo Pedroti1; José Carlos Ribeiro1; 1Universidade Federal de Viçosa
This study aims to evaluate the influence of the change of mortar’s mechanical properties in clay masonry. Experimental studies were performed using prisms of clay blocks under axial compression. They were produced with a clay of region RJ, Brazil. They presented compressive strength of 4,9 MPa. Three mortar compositions were used, than had compressive strength of 40, 70 and 110% of the clay blocks’ net area compressive strength. It was noticed an increase on the prism’s compressive strength with the increase of the mortars’ compressive strength and stiffness. Prisms made with flexible mortars had a ductile fracture by crushing the mortar, but collapsed under lower compressive tensions, while prisms made with stiff mortars resisted higher compressive tensions, but had a brittle fracture, crushing the blocks. The most appropriate laying mortar for clay masonry had 60% of the clay blocks’ net area compressive strength. They possess compressive strength and ductile fracture.
K-38: Experimental Study on Limestone Gypsum Desulfurization Agent with SDA Desulphurization Ash: Lu Lj1; 1Wisco
The chemical composition, particle size, morphology and desulfurization performance were analyzed and compared between SDA desulphurization ash of rotary spray method and desulfurization agent of limestone gypsum method,and the difference between them was investigated.The factors that affect the dissolution rate of limestone were carried out, and the process parameters such as reaction time, pH value and temperature were optimized. The solution of SDA desulfurization ash used in the limestone was optimized, and the conclusion that the SDA desulfurization ash can be used in the limestone gypsum desulfurization agent is obtained.
K-40: X-ray and Microstructural Study of a Set of Cast Aluminum Alloys: Thomas Watkins1; Shibayan Roy2; Lawrence Allard Jr.1; Amit Shyam1; Dongwon Shin1; J. Allen Haynes1; 1Oak Ridge National Laboratory; 2Indian Institute of Technology
In an effort to increase the fuel efficiency of automobiles, the operating pressures and temperatures must increase, necessitating the need for higher temperature aluminum alloys. In this regard, a set of six alloys from three systems (Al-Cu, Al-Si-Cu and Al-Si) were investigated with respect phase content, micro- and nanostructure using laboratory and synchrotron radiation, metallography and TEM. As-aged and preconditioned (300°C for 200 hrs) states were considered to study the thermal stability of the nanostructure (viz., coarsening and phase transformation of strengthening precipitates). A computational thermodynamic approach has been used to predict phase stability of the nanoscale 𝜃′ strengthening precipitate as a function of temperature.
K-41: Porosity of Soil Pigments Based Paints: Reinaldo Santos1; Beatryz Mendes1; Rita de Cássia Alvarenga1; Fernando Cardoso1; Anôr Carvalho1; 1Universidade Federal de Viçosa
An ancient brazilian painting technique consists of applying a cloth material immersed in mud above surfaces. The paint quality is low, requiring frequent maintenance. Earth Colors project have contributed to the improvement of this technique, developing soil and PVA inks. The porosity of the paint film is one of the factors responsible for the appearance of pathologies. The use of low porosity inks can cause moisture accumulation. Thus, the porosity of paints produced with characteristic soils of the city of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, Brazil was analyzed. Based on the results obtained for the dry and wet covering power and abrasion resistance, the three best formulations for each pigment were selected and submitted to porosity tests. It is concluded the yellow ink has a higher porosity than the others. Moreover, just yellow and white paints samples have contrast ratio in or near the allowed limit for latex paints.
K-42: Use of Gamma-alumina Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery System: Antonio Munhoz Jr1; Leila Miranda1; Leonardo Silva1; Mariana Oliveira1; Raphael Andrades1; Renato Peres1; 1U.P.Mackenzie
The sol-gel process may be used to produce nanoparticles of pseudoboehmite, which are employed in drug delivery systems, production of nanocomposites and in the synthesis of gamma-alumina. The use of nanoparticles in drug delivery systems is advantageous because it prevents repeated doses and also decreases the amount of drug intake, which not only enhance the therapeutic effect, but also reduces the risks of plasma concentration reaching toxic levels. Pure gamma-alumina obtained from pseudoboehmite is a synthetic aluminum compound with excellent adsorbent properties. In this work, gamma-alumina was obtained through pseudoboehmite firing to be used for in vitro release of acyclovir. The gamma-alumina was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TG), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) using secondary electron detector and EDS detector. The release profile was obtained by UV/Vis spectroscopy for in vitro analysis. The results indicate gamma-alumina is appropriate for release of acyclovir.
K-43: The Mineralogical and Gemmological Characteristics of Turqoise from Luo Nan,Shan Xi, China: Luo Yuanfei1; 1China University of Geoscience
Luo Nan, Shan Xi is a historic site of turquoise, which is a potential source of Chinese neolithic turquoise products. The mineralogical and gemmological characteristics of turqoise from Luo Nan,Shan Xi are studied by microscope, EPMA, FTIR, SEM, and LA-ICP-MS experiments in this article. Conclusion shows that the texture of turquoise of Luo Nan,Shan Xi is mainly cryptocrystalline texture, EPMA results show that the content of P2O5 is on the high side, and the content of CuO is on the low side. The FTIR results of samples is similar to the data of turquoise from Hu Bei and An Hui. The observation under SEM shows the structure of turquoise is solely flaky texture and irregular distribution of crumb can be seen. Use of LA-ICP-MS is for the test of trace elements and distribution pattern of REE of samples.
K-44: Mechanical Properties of Nanocomposites High Melt Strength Polypropylene (HMSPP) Obtained by Gamma Radiation in Comparison to Conventional Polypropylene Nanocomposites with Smectite Nanoclay: Danilo Fermino1; Washington Oliani2; Christiano Gianesi Bastos Andrade1; Duclerc Parra2; Maria Silva Valenzuela1; Francisco Valenzuela Diaz1; 1USP; 2IPEN
This work concerns the study of the mechanical behavior of the nanocomposite high melt strength polypropylene (HMSPP, obtained at a dose of 12.5 kGy) and a Brazilian bentonite clay from Paraiba (PB) State, used in concentration of 5% by weight, in comparison to conventional polypropylene clay nanocomposites. An agent compatibilizer polypropylene graft (PP-g-AM) was added at a 3% concentration, and the clay was dispersed using the melt intercalation technique using a twin-screw extruder. The specimens were prepared by the injection process. The mechanical behavior was evaluated by strength, flexural strength and impact tests. The morphology of the nanocomposites was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the organophilic bentonite and nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The nanocomposites showed improved mechanical properties compared with the polymer without filler.
K-45: Polymer Blend Based on Recycled Polyethylene and Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymers Reinforced with Natural Fibers from Agricultural Wastes: Renata Coiado1; Gisele Lazo1; Rene Oliveira1; Rita Rodrigues2; Esperidiana Moura1; 1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares; 2Escola de Engenharia de Lorena, Departamento de Biotecnologia. Universidade de Sao Paulo
Agricultural residues, which are produced with large quantities annually throughout the world, may be used as reinforcement plastic to replace the wood and produce particleboard for application in the development of low cost construction elements and reduced environmental impact. The main aims of this study was to investigate the effects of agricultural wastes and glass residues addition on the properties of recycled-HDPE/EVA blend for use in particleboard manufacture. The recycled-HDPE/EVA blend reinforced with corncob fiber (15 wt. %), coffee parchment (15 wt. %) and glass residues (1 wt. %) were processed by melt extrusion, using a twin screw extruder and injection molding machine to obtain specimen test samples. The samples were characterized by mechanical test, XRD, TG, DSC, and SEM analysis to understand the nature of interaction between the fillers reinforcement and recycled-HDPE/EVA blend matrix and their properties were discussed.
K-46: Mechanical, Thermal and Electrical Properties of Polymer (Ethylene Terephthalate - PET) Filled with Carbon Black: Anderson Mesquita1; Leonardo Silva1; Leila Miranda2; 1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares - IPEN/USP; 2Universidade Presbiteriana Mackenzie
In order to obtain and characterize the polymer-based poly(ethylene terephthalate - PET) filled with carbon black and compare their physical and chemical properties with other polymers, thus polypropylene and polystyrene are traditionally used in antistatic packaging. Therefore, PET compounds were obtained containing 10.0; 11.0; 12.0 and 15.0% of carbon black with a particle size 325 mesh. We determined the thermo mechanical properties (Dynamic Mechanical Analysis - DMA, Tensile Strength, Impact Strength, and Hardness) and Electrical properties of the compounds obtained. In conclusion has shown the compound based on PET filled with 15.0% carbon black might be used in the handling, transportation and storage of electronic components because their mechanical properties, thermal and resistivity are satisfactory for this purpose.
K-47: The Use of Network Simplex Method for Planning the Incorporation of Recycled Paper Mill Sludge in Manufacturing of Ceramic Bodies: Andreiva Carmo1; Nirlane Silva1; Anna Sartori1; Ana Rezende1; Leonardo Pedroti1; Wellington Fernandes1; Benício Ribeiro1; 1Universidade Federal de Viçosa
The final disposal of sludge from recycled paper industry wastewater treatment demands high financial cost and area availability for landfilling, becoming the process more expensive. Thus environmentally adequate disposal alternatives to enable the economic value of this waste appear as a possibility to reduce the production costs of these industries. This paper aimed to evaluate the sludge incorporation viability in manufacture of ceramic bodies. The combination of different percentage of weak clay, strong clay and waste (sludge from recycled paper wastewater treatment) for the ceramic bodies production was determined by network Simplex method planning of mixtures and subsequently burnt at temperatures of 750°C, 850°C and 950°C. Physical, mechanical and environmental tests were performed, in addition to chemical, microscopic and thermic analysis. The mixture design is efficient combining sludge addition at small fractions with large amount of clay, which demonstrate the viability of sludge incorporation for ceramic bodies manufacture.
K-48: Nd3+ Doping Effect on the Structure, Microstructure, Lattice Distortion and Electronic Properties of TiO2 Nanoparticles: Balter Trujillo-Navarrete1; Edgar Alonso Reynoso-Soto1; María del Pilar Haro-Vázquez2; Henry Alvarez-Huerta1; Rosa María Félix-Navarro1; Sergio Pérez-Sicairos1; 1Instituto Tecnologico de Tijuana; 2Universidad Autónoma de Baja California
Doped and undoped TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared by sol–gel method and thermally treated at 600 ºC. The Nd3+ ion eﬀect was studied on the structure and microstructure of anatase TiO2 by the Rietveld reﬁnement using X-ray powder diﬀraction data. Bond lengths, intra-polyhedral and nearest-neighbor bond angles, and edges distances were analyzed. The phase formation was conﬁrmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the trivalent cation of rare earth altered the microstructure and the octahedral array. The adjustment of Ti–O bond length induced by the dopant addition, reduced the octahedral distortion of the samples with a decrease in the quadratic elongation and angle variance. The structural changes were mainly observed for 0.1 at. % Nd-doped TiO2 nanoparticles attributed to the substitutional Nd3+ ions. The dopant insertion resulted in a better structural stability of the nanocrystals that enhanced their charge transference and photocatalytic efﬁciency.
K-49: Microstructural Evolution of Ni-Superalloys during Hot Rolling and Thermal Aging: Matjaz Godec1; Simon Malej1; Jaka Burja1; Franc Tehovnik1; Bojan Podgornik1; 1Institute of Metals and Technology
Ni-superalloy Inconel 625 has a high strength and high resistance to chloride-ion stress-corrosion and is therefore used in very aggressive environments. Inconel 625 was primary designed as a solid solution strengthening alloy by addition of chromium and molybdenum. However, during aging different intermetallic phases and carbides formed in the matrix and along grain boundaries. Intermetallic phase γ‘‘-(Ni3Nb) in the γ-matrix and precipitation of M23C6 at the grain boundaries were formed at 650 °C aging temperature. The microstructure changes during the hot rolling of the Inconel 625 were investigated as well. A detailed insight into the recrystallization behaviour during hot rolling was provided by an EBSD analysis. During the hot rolling the recrystallization starts on the grain boundaries, followed by the twin grain boundaries and, at even higher stresses, the recrystallization occurs on the (TiNb)CN phases inside the crystal grains.
K-50: Optical Marker Synthesis for Use in Polymer Processing Based on the Doping with Europium Complex: Luiz Komatsu1; Washington Oliani1; Ademar Lugao1; Duclerc Parra1; 1Nuclear and Energy Research Institute
Actually the use of luminesce materials for illumination at night without using electric energy has increased in the last years. Among these uses, the luminescent material is blended in diverse materials, but the focus of this work is polymeric material. The Europium [Eu(tta)3(H2O)2] was utilized as luminescent material and was synthesized in optical marker for polymer processing. The optical marker is obtained by casting utilizing polyamide and the processing for final product was carried in twin-screw extrusion, utilizing the modified polypropylene by gamma irradiation (HMSPP – high melt strength polypropylene). The properties of final product were evaluated by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The optical marker with higher concentration (>2wt%) showed no modification in the luminescence after processing, in comparison to the optical marker with lower concentration (<2 wt%), has no luminescence after processing.
K-51: Plasmonic Behavior of Nonstoichiometric Alumina on Al: Hansoo Kim1; 1Texas A&M University
A nonstoichiometric alumina, known as a promising alternative plasmonic material for solar cells, is investigated for plasmonic behavior. This is acquired by a two-step process where characterization by electron microscopy is first performed for crystallography, followed by electron energy loss spectroscopy for electronic response from spatially inequivalent spots of Al nanoparticles with a protective surface oxide. A novel and unique plasmon from the surface oxide is found in the energy loss spectra. The plasmon is preceded by a new single-electron excitation at a lower energy. Application of the Bethe f-sum rule shows that the concentration of charge carriers reaches around the Mott density by the transition. The excitation is theorized to be involved with a defect energy band in the alumina. Another crucial result is a weakened oscillator strength of excitonic transition. This investigation will benefit applications of alumina as well as other metal oxides for plasmonics.
K-53: Use of Alkaline Solid Wastes from Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills, Dregs and Grits in Cement Production: Caio Torres1; Leonardo Pedroti1; Claudio Silva1; Wellington Fernandes1; Natália Viana1; Gustavo Lima1; Roseli Martins; Roseli Martins1; Lorena Sathler1; Marina Caetano1; Igor Andrade1; 1UFV / DEC
In recent years, Kraft Pulp and Paper Mills in Brazil have been expanding. In line with this industrial growth, there has been a concern about the increase in waste generation and its form of environmental dispersion. The objective of this research was to study the technical feasibility of using solid waste from kraft pulp. The proposed use is incorporation of dregs and grits as raw material, in different percentages, to clinker in the cement industry. The inserted methodology includes the following phases: physical and chemical characterization of corporate waste and clinker, and laboratory tests. The results showed that the addition of waste were satisfactory, as they are within the limits established in the Brazilian regulation. Concluded that the results have a positive effect on the environment in not creating new landfills; recycling of materials; non-renewable materials extraction reduction, virgin raw materials; and no greenhouse gas emissions in its production process.
K-55: Synthesis and Characterization of PVA/Bio-hydroxyapatite Nanoparticle for Sunscreen Application: Karine Sousa1; Pedro Reis1; Rene Oliveira1; Esperidiana Moura1; 1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares
Currently the concern over skin cancer has presented large increase, especially in tropical countries due to the higher incidence of UVA/B radiation. Then, the use of sunscreens is extremely necessary to prevent the development of this disease. In this work nanocomposites consisting of poly(vinyl alcohol) reinforced with bio-hydroxyapatite nanoparticle obtained from the eggshell, for sunscreens application, were prepared by solution casting method. Nanocomposites prepared were evaluated for their organoleptic characteristics, microbiologic tests pH, XRD, and UV/VIS analysis.
K-56: Research on the Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater with
Semi-coke Modified with Water Vapor: Lina Wang1; 1Wuhan Iron and Steel Co.
The article investigated the advanced treatment of coking wastewater using modified semi-coke with water vapor as adsorbent in the laboratory. Effects of reaction time, pH, modified semi-coke dose and particle size on adsorption influence were discussed by single factor experiment. The results indicate that the removal rate of TOC is above 60% when dosage is 20g/L, particle size1-2mm， pH=3 and reaction for 30min. In addition, the structure of modified and unmodified semi-coke was characterized by SEM, and nitrogen was used to determination the specific surface area of modified and unmodified semi-coke as adsorbent. The experimental results would serve as technologic basis for large scale application of modified semi-coke.
K-57: Preparation and Characterization of Polyethylene Nanocomposites with Clay and Silver Nanoparticles: Washington Oliani1; Danilo Fermino2; Luiz Komatsu1; Ademar Lugao1; Vijaya Rangari3; Nilton Lincopan4; Duclerc Parra1; 1Nuclear Energy Research Institute – IPEN/USP; 22Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering; 3Center for Advanced Materials Science and Engineering Tuskegee University; 4Department of Microbiology-Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo
Polyethylene is widely used for packing applications. Different grades of polyethylene, LLDPE and LDPE play a major role in the film blowing industry. The use of nanoclay in polymer matrices (non-polar) requires the use of a compatibilizer agent, ethylene graft maleic anhydride copolymer (PE-g-MA), which acts as a bridge for nanoclay-matrix-interaction. In our study, blown films of LLDPE, LDPE, and their blends were produced using a twin screw extruder. The combination of PEs as matrix, montmorillonite (MMT) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) intended to improve mechanical and thermal properties. Nanocomposites films with 1.0 wt% of montmorillonite and 0.5 to 1.0 wt% silver nanoparticles were prepared by blow extrusion and evaluated. Nanoclay intercalation/exfoliation degree was investigated by X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Mechanical and thermal properties were evaluated. The results showed optimum dispersion at intercalation/exfoliation levels for PEs:MMT:AgNPs, slight increasing in mechanical and especially improvement in thermal properties.
K-58: Radiation Effects in the Crystal Polystyrene Composite with Clays: Djalma Dias1; Elaine Silva1; Francisco Valenzuela-Diaz2; Mariana Sartori1; Leonardo Silva1; 1IPEN/CNEN-SP; 2Universidade de São Paulo
The polymeric nanocomposites consist of a class of materials formed with inorganic nanometer dimensions, such as clay, dispersed in a polymeric matrix. In this work, nanocomposite of polystyrene crystal with 3% of organically modified clay – Cloisite 20A were obtained and irradiated at irradiation doses of 400, 600 and 800 kGy in an electron accelerator, and characterized. The thermal properties were studied by thermogravimetric analysis (TG) and the mechanical properties studied were tensile strength, flexure and impact Izod. The results showed that the nanocomposites presented structures composed by intercalated and exfoliated phases. The thermal analyses demonstrated that the addition of organoclay turned PS more thermally stable. Furthermore, the Izod impact strength was increased in samples of PS with clay when compared to pure PS. TG analysis indicated a tendency to increase thermal stability of the material after irradiation. In conclusion, the nanocomposite properties were modified after irradiation. Keywords: nanocomposites, irradiation
K-59: Production of Concrete Interlocking Blocks with Partial Replacement of Sand in Bulk by Waste Glass Machined: Niander Cerqueira1; Victor Souza2; Igor Pereira3; Rondinelli Ribeiro3; Afonso Azevedo1; Victor Bartolazzi3; Mairyanne Souza1; Glenio Daniel3; 1Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF; 2UFF; 3Faculdade Redentor
The common glass machining process used in the market of Brazil's civil construction generates tons of waste through the folder of that waste disposal out by the water used during machining. After drying the product is intended for landfill representing a great environmental liabilities since these deposited glass waste in the environment have a decomposition time greater than four thousand years due to its high chemical and mechanical resistance. Aiming to give a destination that addresses this waste disposal problem in the environment, much has been studied in an attempt to incorporate them into the mix cement to partially replace the sand. In this work it was decided to carry out specific studies using common traits comparing the stroke with sand with a dash with partial replacement of 30% of the sand for the glass machining residue was analyzed resistance compressive resulting in a potential good product.
K-60: Steel Slag: Analysis of Application in Cementitious Materials: Gustavo Lima1; Leonardo Pedroti1; José Carlos Junior2; Wellington Fernandes1; Sergio Monteiro3; 1Universidade Federal de Viçosa - UFV; 2Universidade Federal de São João del Rei; 3Instituto Militar de Engenharia
The global steel industry generates about 84 million tonnes of steel slag annually, with Brazil accounting for about 5% of the generation of this waste. For it is a pozzolan, this material has great potential for use in the cementitious materials industry, however it is necessary a detailed study of their properties. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare the microstructure of the steel slag and blast furnace slag using XRD, SEM, AFM and EDX. The crystalline phases and the morphology of the compounds were compared. The results of the analyzes and the micrographs were presented and discussed about the application potential in cementitious materials.
K-61: Reactive Powder Concrete Production with the Addition of Granite Processing Waste: Joao Vitor Lemes1; Gustavo Lima1; Felipe Gabriel Machado1; Leonardo Pedroti1; Lucas Fioresi1; Wellington Fernandes1; Rita Alvarenga1; Sergio Monteiro2; 1Universidade Federal de Vicosa; 2Instituto Militar de Engenharia
The Reactive Powder Concrete (RPC) has compression strength in the range of 200 to 800 MPa. It is a durable material, with low permeability and appropriate for usage in lightweight structures and concrete strengthening. In this study, different concrete compositions were produced, each with water-cement ratio of 0.23, 0.25, 0.30, 0.35 and 0.40. The standard composition had the addition of crushed quartz. In the other compositions, it was replaced with waste from granite processing. Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) tests, compressive strength and Young’s modulus tests after 1, 3, 7 and 28 days of production and shear and flexural strength after 28 days of production were performed during the analysis. The results indicated that without thermal curing RPC does not reach the expected compressive strength. On the other hand, the addition of granite processing waste produced an improvement in compressive strength.
K-62: Study of Synergistic Effect of Light Stabilizer Additive, Conventional and Nanoparticles, Applied to Polyethylene Films Submitted to Ultraviolet Radiation: Patricia Poveda1; Leonardo Silva1; 1Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP
Thermoplastic materials are sensitive to ultraviolet radiation (UV), which can cause structural changes, causing variation in mechanical properties and appearance. UV range between 250-400 nm is considered the most aggressive to polymers, and prolonged exposure to it results in breakage and/or crosslinking chains. Light stabilizer additives, blockers or absorbers are added to the polymers to protection in order to extend the life of the final product. The choice of adequate light stabilizer additive system depends on factors such as resin final application, thickness, geographic location of exposure, presence of fillers in the composition, contact with chemicals, among others. This study evaluates different additive systems: conventional organic, inorganic nanotechnology base and the synergy between them when applied to polyethylene considering carbonyl index and UV Vis results after aging by QUV chamber.
K-64: Saw Dust of Waste as Partial Substitute Fine Aggregate in Structural Concrete: Niander Cerqueira1; Victor Souza2; Victor Bartolazzi3; Henri Gazal3; João Victor Silveira3; Mairyanne Souza1; Olivia Campinho3; André Gomes3; Glenio Daniel3; 1Universidade Estadual Do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF; 2UFF; 3Faculdade Redentor
Given the large number of natural fibers simply being burned and discarded like trash, the idea of using them in partial replacement of fine aggregate in structural concrete or as composite reinforcements has grown in recent years. The sawdust is abundant and have motivated their use to be a product of little use, where its main purpose would be before disposal. It is low cost yet enabling economic viability. This paper presents a study designed to employ a sustainable destination to sawdust, replacing part of the raw material in the production of concrete in civil production and performing compression tests on the resulting product. The results regarding the mechanical behavior and appearance were satisfactory, the subject of further analysis to improvement product.
K-65: Study of Calcined Mixtures from Industrial Residues for Production of Agglomerates: Letícia Fernandez1; Leonardo Pedroti1; Elisson Ferreira1; Rita Alvarenga1; Larice Justino1; Wellington Fernandes1; 1Universidade Federal de Viçosa
More and more industries have been concerned with the disposal of the wastes generated in their production processes, once this generates a positive impact, both visual and economic enterprise. In this context, and seen the importance of the Portland cement as a building material, which aims the creation of an ecological cement from the mix of two wastes, the grits, which is a waste generated in pulp production, and the granite beneficiation waste. It proceeded initially with the chemical, physical and mineralogical descriptions of the wastes. Then embodiments were prepared with different compositions of mixture and sintered in a muffle at about 1300° C, forming new compounds that were compared with national cements, according to the Brazilian technical standards. It was concluded that the sintering of the product obtained satisfactory results, presenting good binder characteristics, but not yet with the desired resistances compared with the commercial Portland cement.
K-66: Study of the Effect of Surface Liquid Flow during Column Flotation of Mining Tailing of the Dos Carlos Dam: Javier Flores Badillo1; Juan Hernández Ávila1; Eleazar Salinas Rodríguez1; Isauro Rivera Landero1; María Reyes Valderrama1; Eduardo Cerecedo Sáenz1; Martín Reyes Pérez1; Mauricio Guerrero Rodríguez1; 1Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
During column flotation of mining tailings of the Dos Carlos dam, it was observed that the effect of surface liquid flow (JL) is a variable that determines the rate of rise of packing bubbles and therefore, causes the generation of gas retained within the columnar system. Also overall more stable laminar flows were observed, in a range of superficial flow of liquid in the bottoms stream (JLT) from 0.446 to 0.68 cm/s, showing the stability in the range of superficial gas flow (Jg) from 0.1 to 0.5 cm/s. Observing a uniform bubble size for the three JLT evaluated, with a diameter between 0.05475 and 0.2525 cm, at all the range evaluated of Jg. Furthermore, an uniform performance was obtained, and with the same rate of rise of packing bubbles, showing a greater packing bubbles at JLT = 0.446 cm/s, due to the lesser bubble size observed, in comparison with the values of JLT of 0.68 and 1.017 cm/s.
K-67: Study on Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater Using Catalytic Ozonation Process: Liu Pu1; 1Research and Development Center of Wuhan Iron and Steel Company Limited
Catalytic ozonation test of coking wastewater was carried out with ozone solely and three kinds of catalysts.The result show that,the eficiency of ozonation can be increased markedly and the dosing quantity of ozone can be decreased.The removal rate of UV254 and COD can achieve 71.03% and 50.36% respectively,the COD of effluent met with emission standard of pollutants for coking chemical industry(GB16171-2012).Through the comparison of the performance indexes of the three catalysts.the suitable catalyst was selected for the next industrial test.
K-69: Study on Bending Test on Concrete Structural Use Crumb Rubber as Substitute in Fine Aggregate: Niander Cerqueira1; Victor Souza2; Bruno Padilha3; Pâmela Berçot3; Afonso Azevedo1; Victor Bartolazzi3; Glenio Daniel3; 1Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro - UENF; 2UFF; 3Faculdade Redentor
In recent years, concern about environmental issues has become a parameter to consider in the projects in engineering. In order to reduce the impact that the tire improper disposal may result for the environment, we sought a solution to this problem. This article proposes the use of rubber scrap tires as fine aggregate in concrete production. The material produced was analyzed by a bending test, resulting in product quality, in particular for application in situations requiring a more ductile material.
K-71: Surface Characterization of FeS2 and Pulp during Grinding in an Inert Mill: Martín Reyes1; Elia Palacios2; Francisco Patiño3; Miguel Pérez1; Mizraim Flores4; Iván Reyes5; Laura Angeles1; Aislinn Teja1; 1Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo; 2Instituto Politécnico Nacional; 3Universidad Politécnica Metropolitana de Hidalgo; 4Universidad Tecnológica de Tulancingo.; 5Universidad Autónoma de San Luis Potosí
The present investigation studied: the physicochemical pulp and surface modification of pyrite (FeS2) by techniques infrared Fourier transform (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) during autogenous grinding in inert mill (Nylamid plastic) in a wide pH range and grinding times. The results show the continuous change of the physicochemical variables: pH, oxide reduction potential (ORP), concentration of dissolved oxygen (DO) and electrical conductivity during the grinding, indicating surface oxidation of iron and sulfur of the mineral species, the characterization by FTIR shows the surface modification of the pyrite particles, wherein the surface iron tends to form oxidized species such as lepidocrocite, akaganeite and hydroxy oxy sulphates present in the species schwermanita with absorption bands cm-1 477, 546 cm-1 and 696 cm-1 respectively, the sulfur is oxidized to sulfate which is coordinated with iron, bidentate manner forming four absorption bands at about 1030 cm-1, 1109 cm-1, 1179 cm-1 and 1239 cm-1.
K-72: Synthesis of ZnO and TiO2 Nanocomposites for Antibacterial Activity: Luiz Komatsu1; Washington Oliani1; Ademar Lugao1; Duclerc Parra1; 1Nuclear and Energy Research Institute
Antibacterial polymer was developed utilizing ZnO and TiO2 nanoparticles. The polymer matrix utilized was the modified polypropylene by gamma irradiation. The nanocomposites were obtained by twin-screw extrusion and the films for testing were obtained by blown film extrusion. Both the nanoparticles were synthesized in laboratory following the polymeric precursor method, as described in the Pechini method. Diferential Calorimetry Scanning (DSC), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), Scanning Eletron Microscopy (SEM), X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), allowed evaluation of the properties. The antibacterial tests were performed with Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In the sample with TiO2 at higher concentration (>3wt%) was observed some agglomerates in the SEM techinique surface and an increase of crystallinity, as observed in the DSC. Both the samples showed an antibacterial activity against the E.coli bacteria.
K-73: Texture Analysis and Anisotropic Properties of a Rolled CuZn36 Brass Alloy: Athanasios Vazdirvanidis1; George Pantazopoulos2; Anagnostis Toulfatzis2; Andreas Rikos2; 1ELKEME ; 2ELKEME
In this study, the mechanical properties of an annealed CuZn36 rolled brass alloy with 0.2mm thickness with respect to anisotropy expressed in terms of plastic strain ratio measurements (r-values, normal and planar anisotropy) are related with the development of specific rolling and recrystallization texture components obtained by EBSD. Anisotropic behaviour is primarily controlled by the crystallographic texture and constitutes an indicator of multi-axial mechanical behaviour, affecting directly the drawability and sheet metal formability. Microstructure examination in combination with fracture analysis, employing optical and Scanning Electron Microscopy of tensile specimens are also performed, in order to investigate the emergent damage mechanisms in relation to the texture and structure evolution of the final product.
K-75: Weibull Analysis of the Behavior on Flexural Strength of Clayey Ceramic Incorporated with Fluorescent Lamp Glass Waste Powders for Different Firing Temperature: Alline Morais1; Carlos Maurício Vieira2; Sergio Monteiro3; 1Instituto Federal Fluminense - IFF; 2State University of the North Fluminense Darcy Ribeiro; 3Military Institute of Engineering - IME, Materials Science Department
The glass of the fluorescent lamps is contaminated with mercury, which a serious hazard due to conventional recycling by melting with other glasses. A possible solution could be its incorporation into a clay body to fabricate bricks and tiles, improving the mechanical strength of this products. The Weibull distribution is an interesting method that enables statistical processing of the mechanical strength values. The objective of this study is to analyze the data obtained from testing the mechanical strength of the fired specimens on temperatures in 850, 900, 950, 1000, 1050 and 1100°C by applying a statistical probability Weibull for the calculation of fracture resistance. It was found from the results obtained that the Weibull is suitable to determine the flexural strength of ceramic materials. With this technique can be a good interpretation of the data, which showed that the batch study did not show a significant variation in flexural resistance.
K-76: Advanced Ion Column Solution for Low Ion Damage Characterization and Ultra-fine Process: Sang Hoon Lee1; Mostafa Maazouz1; Liang Zhang1; Mauricio Gordillo1; Micah Ledoux1; Jeff Blackwood1; 1FEI
To meet rising requirements for the low-damage ultra-fine process with Focused Ion beam (FIB) in materials science and semiconductor industry, the advanced ion column and corresponding advanced applications as a solution are developed and demonstrated. Novel high speed High KV milling, low kV cleaning and imaging capability have enabled the creating of impeccable ultra-thin structures such as TEM samples and nano scale structures. Minimizing Ga+ induced sample damage is achieved through the optimized final cleaning at 500V ion landing energy with the new ion optics such as close control of the ion dose, beam incidence angle, spot size, pattern algorithm and imaging performance. And newly introduced process solutions achieve the improved process throughput. Initial demonstration is performed on the latest 10nm scale FinFET device. Validation of the thinnest <0.8 nm thick ion damage layer on the <7nm thickness lamella structure was confirmed through the TEM analysis.
K-77: Characterization and Mechanical Properties of Additively Manufactured Stainless Steel 316L: M.A. Bevan1; A.A.H. Ameri1; D. East2; Juan P. Escobedo-Diaz1; A.D. Brown1; M.Z. Quadir3; P.J. Hazell1; 1School of Engineering and Information Technology, UNSW Australia; 2Manufacturing Flagship, CSIRO Clayton; 3 Microscopy and Microanalysis Facility (MMF), John de Laeter Centre (JdLC), Curtin University
Additive Manufacturing (AM) has become increasingly popular due to the ability to produce components with complex geometries and properties. The efficiency of this manufacturing method is investigated in this paper by examining the mechanical performance of AM austenitic stainless steel 316L under different strain rates. Dynamic tension and compression experiments were conducted by using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB). Microstructural observations were performed by utilizing optical microscopy and electron back-Scattered diffraction (EBSD). The behaviour of this material is compared against stainless steel 316L manufactured by conventional methods and Lean Duplex stainless steel 2101 (LDSS 2101). It has been observed that the AM 316L has a considerable difference in the mechanical properties compared with conventional stainless steel alloys under at the different speed of loadings.