Advances in Environmental Technologies: Recycling and Sustainability Joint Session: Advances in Environmental Technologies: New Areas of Value Recovery
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS Light Metals Division, REWAS Organizing Committee, TMS: Pyrometallurgy Committee, TMS: Recycling and Environmental Technologies Committee
Program Organizers: John Howarter, Purdue University; Mark Kennedy, Proval Partners SA; Naiyang Ma, ArcelorMittal; Elsa Olivetti, Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Randolph Kirchain, Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Monday 2:00 PM
February 27, 2017
Room: 14B
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr

Session Chair: Mark Kennedy, Proval Partners SA; John Howarter, Purdue University; Elsa Olivetti, MIT

2:00 PM  
Accelerating Life-cycle Management Protocols for New Generation Batteries: Timothy Ellis1; John Howes2; Travis Hesterberg1; 1RSR Technologies, Inc.; 2Redland Energy Group
    The production of lead-acid batteries is defined by a closed-loop product life-cycle. Active material and grid alloys are converging on an adaptable specification set that improves both performance and recyclability. This process for lead-acid batteries has taken over 50 years to develop. But, as the use of batteries made with other chemistries continues to grow, the need for a comparable life-cycle management adoption process becomes increasingly apparent. What has taken 50 years for lead-acid to evolve in a closed-loop paradigm must now be accomplished in less time. End-of-life costs for batteries using other chemistries and technologies are not embedded in the product cost and are borne by other constituencies with often inefficient and environmentally damaging results. Lead-acid can serve as a materials technology management model for other products. The technology management history and the development of the present materials set in this context and future projections will be discussed.

2:20 PM  
Recovery of Aluminum from the Secondary Aluminum Production Dust: Myungwon Jung1; Brajendra Mishra1; 1Worcester Polytechnic Institute
    Secondary aluminum production has several advantages over the primary aluminum production, such as resource conservation and energy savings. For these reasons, aluminum is one of the most recycled metals worldwide. During secondary aluminum production, dust containing aluminum is generated in many stages, and it is usually landfilled in US. However, a proper handling of aluminum dust is required since it has flammable and irritant nature. In this research, aluminum recovery from the secondary aluminum production dust is investigated by hydrometallurgical processes. First, sodium aluminate solution is generated by sodium hydroxide leaching of secondary aluminum production dust. After that, aluminum in the leach solution is recovered as the aluminum hydroxide by adjusting the pH of the solution. Based on the results, the percentage of aluminum recovery from the leach solution is about 94% at pH 10.5.

2:40 PM  
Fabrication of Aluminum Foam from Aluminum Scrap: Abdel-Nasser Omran1; Hamza Osman1; A. Atlam1; Moatasem Kh1; 1Mining and Metallurgical Engineering Depart., Faculty of Engineering, Azhar University
    In this study the optimum parameters affecting the preparation of aluminum foam from recycled aluminum were studied, these parameters are: temperature, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as foaming agent, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio as thickening agent, and stirring time. The results show that, the optimum parameters are the temperature ranged from 800 to 850oC, CaCO3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 5%, Al2O3 to aluminum scrap wt. ratio was 3% and stirring time was 45 second with stirring speed 1200 rpm. The produced foam apparent densities ranged from 0.40-0.60 g/cm3. The microstructure of aluminum foam was examined by using SEM, EDX and XRD, the results show that, the aluminum pores were uniformly distributed along the all matrices and the cell walls covered by thin oxide film.

3:00 PM  
A Low Temperature Procedure for the Delamination of Brominated Epoxy Resin of Waste Printed Circuit Boards: Himanshu Verma1; Kamalesh Singh1; Tilak Mankhand1; 1IIT(BHU)
    A new technique of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs) recycling by dissolution of brominated epoxy resin (BER) in dimethyl formamide (DMF) has been investigated. Dissolution of BER is highly influenced by parameters like temperature, size, WPCB:DMF etc. and it results separation of layers of WPCBs. WPCBs of 1cm2, 2cm2 and 3cm2 were separated into components after 120 min, 180 min and 240 min respectively at 408 K and 300 g/l. DMF after usage was recycled and analyzed by gas chromatography, proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Residue obtained after recycling of DMF was analyzed by Fourier-transforms infra-red spectroscopy and scanning electron microscope-energy dispersive X-ray. Investigation of mechanism of dissolution revealed that H-bonding plays a very important role. This technique featuring separation of different components, regeneration of DMF, recovery of BER makes the process extremely cost effective, negligible effluent generating and thus, resulting cleaner processing of WPCBs.

3:20 PM Break

3:40 PM  
Recovery of Metals and Nonmetals from Waste Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) by Physical Recycling Techniques: Muammer Kaya1; 1ESOGÜ
    This paper reviews the existing and state of art knowledge for PCBs recycling in order to recover the base (Fe, Cu, Al, Sn etc.) and valuable (Au, Ag etc.) metals and nonmetals (resins, glassfiber, ceramics, BFRs etc.) with and without electronic components. PCBs constitute about 3% of the total electronic waste and contain 30% metals and 70 % nonmetals. Therefore; they are respected as both polimetallic secondary source and potentially toxic waste due to Pb, Hg, Cd, Cr and BFR contents if improperly managed or recycled. This paper classifies and characterises waste PCBs; describes PCB structures; electronic components joinings; manual and automated dismantling techniques; communition by shredding and pulverizing for liberation; physical separation methods (gravity, magnetic and electrostatic); metallurgical processing (pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and biohydrometallurgy) and purification processes. PCB selective manual dismantling, physical separation and hydrometallurgical extraction results in laboratory scale will also be presented along with a flowsheet.

4:00 PM  
Recovery of Electrolytic Zinc from Aqueous Wastes: An Approach to the Industry of Hot Dip Galvanized: Luz Ocampo Carmona1; Andres Meza Rodriguez1; 1Universidad Nacional de Colombia
    The hot-dip galvanized is an industrial process for protection of structures against corrosion; this process generates liquid effluents with high contents of zinc. It was made a literature review about thermodynamic - electrochemical analysis of the electrolytic methods for the recovery of zinc from such effluents so that sewage water possess the required zinc levels in the Colombian environmental regulations. In particular will discuss the efficiency of the electroflotation, the electrolytic refining and considers the conditions of the pollution generated by the galvanized and in some cases of similar industries. Similarly, aims to contextualize the reader to the importance, use and toxicity of elemental zinc or as molecular agent, with an emphasis on the regulations that govern the dumping and pollution by zinc in Colombia and the world.