Energy Technologies: Energy Technologies
Sponsored by: TMS Extraction and Processing Division, TMS Light Metals Division, TMS: Energy Committee, TMS: Pyrometallurgy Committee
Program Organizers: Lei Zhang, University of Alaska Fairbanks ; Jaroslaw Drelich, Michigan Technological University; Neale Neelameggham, Ind LLC; Donna Guillen, Idaho National Laboratory; Nawshad Haque, CSIRO; Jingxi Zhu , Carnegie Mellon University; Ziqi Sun, Queensland University of Technology; Tao Wang, Nucor Steel; John Howarter, Purdue University; Fiseha Tesfaye, Ċbo Akademi University
Wednesday 8:30 AM
March 1, 2017
Location: San Diego Convention Ctr
Session Chair: Lei Zhang, University of Alaska Fairbanks; Jaroslaw Drelich, Michigan Technological University
8:30 AM Introductory Comments
Continuous Optimization of the Energy Input – The Success Story of AOS: Felix Wolters1; Michael Schütt1; 1Aluminium Oxid Stade GmbH
During over 40 years of operation, engineers at Aluminium Oxid Stade GmbH (AOS) have acquired a lot of experience whereby they have developed a series of optimizations regarding the specific primary energy consumption. The tube digester technology, invented by VAW in Germany and applied on an industrial scale for the first time in Stade, was brought to perfection by its innovative cleaning methods, which led to a constantly high heat transfer, low pressure loss and excellent availability of the digesters. Further improvements such as the heat recovery from the exhaust gas stream of the salt heater as well as the optimization of one of the fluid bed calciners and the installation of a combined heat and power generator (CHP) led AOS to where it is now – a leading alumina refinery with regard to the lowest energy consumption per ton of alumina.
Energy Savings through Thermally-efficient Crucible Technology: Fundamentals, Process Modeling, and Applications: Wenwu Shi1; Brian Pinto1; 1Vesuvius/Foseco
Melting and holding molten metals within crucibles account for a large portion of total energy demand in the resource-intensive nonferrous foundry industry. Through the use of multivariate mathematical modeling aided by detailed material characterization, advancements in crucible technologies have been able to make a significant impact in the areas of cost-efficiency and carbon footprint. Key thermal properties such as conductivity and specific heat capacity were studied to understand their influence on crucible furnace energy consumption during melting and holding processes. Effects of conductivity on thermal stresses and longevity of crucibles were also evaluated. With this information, accurate theoretical models using finite element analysis (FEA) were developed to study total energy consumption and melting time. By applying these findings to recent crucible developments, considerable improvements in field performance were reported; documented as case studies in applications ranging from aluminum holding to zinc oxide production.
9:15 AM Invited
Applications of Engineered Materials for Geothermal Resource Utilization: Arna Palsdottir1; Adam Hawkins1; Mitchell Ishmael1; Jefferson Tester2; 1Cornell University; 2Cornell University
Geothermal resources provide a range of opportunities for advanced materials development. In this presentation, three specific applications will be discussed: 1. Recovery of Lithium from geothermal brines by selective extraction in supercritical carbon dioxide containing crown ethers, 2. Nanoparticles as hydrodynamic tracers in geothermal reservoir characterization, and 3. Enhanced thermal energy storage and energy conversion with using supercritical fluid mixtures. Specific research goals, laboratory and field testing results and theoretical modeling results will be outlined to illustrate the enabling role of engineered materials for increasing the technical performance and economic value of geothermal systems. For example, producing lithium as a co-product with thermal energy recovery and electricity generation in hydrothermal geothermal systems and providing a means for predicting the thermal lifetime of active geothermal reservoirs using reactive and inert tracers to characterizing the thermal hydraulics of water injected into a fractured rock network.
9:35 AM Invited
National Laboratory-led Collaborations for Accelerating Hydrogen Storage Materials Development: Ned Stetson1; Zeric Hulvey2; Jesse Adams1; 1U.S. Department of Energy; 2Oak Ridge Affliliated Universities
The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Hydrogen Storage Program supports R&D activities for the development of hydrogen storage materials and systems to meet the needs of fuel cell electric vehicles. In 2016, the program launched the Hydrogen Materials—Advanced Research Consortium (HyMARC) to accelerate hydrogen storage materials development efforts. HyMARC consists of two key components, a national laboratory core team, and individual projects. The core team consists of researchers at Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The individual projects are competitively selected from industry, universities and national laboratories. The core team will address the scientific gaps impeding the advancement of solid-state storage materials, providing the foundational understanding of the interaction of hydrogen with materials. This presentation will provide an overview of the innovative materials development work being carried out through the Program. These projects include hydrogen sorbents and metal hydride materials development.
10:05 AM Break
10:20 AM Invited
Interrogating Nanoscale Defects to Enable Cost-Effective Solar Energy Conversion: David Fenning1; 1UC San Diego
To achieve long-term stability of large-area solar energy conversion devices, improved control over the defects that currently limit their performance is required. A multi-scale characterization approach will be presented that probes nanoscale defect behavior– even at bulk impurity concentrations as low as part per billion and below – to investigate their macroscale optoelectronic impact in today’s solar cells. By quantifying the defect kinetics observed, I will demonstrate how we can use defect simulation to guide the absorber’s processing into a completed cell. Translating learnings from silicon photovoltaics to the emerging class of organic-inorganic lead halide perovskites, I will discuss our recent synchrotron-based X-ray nanoprobe investigations of chemical heterogeneity in perovskite solar cells. By identifying and controlling device-limiting defects in the bulk or at interfaces, we can systematically improve the integration of state-of-the-art materials for high-efficiency, low-cost solar energy conversion and storage.
10:40 AM Invited
Graphene-like Ultrathin 2D Metal Oxide Nanosheets for Sustainable Applications: Ziqi Sun1; 1Queensland University of Technology
Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal oxide systems present exotic electronic properties and high specific surface areas, and also demonstrate promising applications ranging from electronics to energy storage. Yet, in contrast to other types of nanostructures, the question as to whether we could assemble 2D nanomaterials with an atomic thickness from molecules in a general way, which would give them some amazing properties such as those of graphene, still remains unresolved. In this presentation, we will report a generalized and fundamental approach to molecular self-assembly synthesis of ultrathin 2D nanosheets of transition metal oxides by rationally employing lamellar reverse micelles and the functional applications of those unique 2D nanomaterials. It is worth emphasizing that the synthesized crystallized ultrathin transition metal oxide nanosheets possess confined thickness, high specific surface area, and chemically reactive facets, so that they showed promising applications in sustainable applications such as nanostructured photonics, catalysis, and batteries.
Advanced Composite Materials for Passive Thermal Management of Electronics: John Howarter1; Yash Ganatra1; Alexandra Bruce1; Amy Marconnet1; 1Purdue University
Polymer composites are used in a diverse set of applications such as aerospace, electronics, and packaging due to their ease of manufacturing, low cost, and highly tunable range of properties. In the electronics field, there is a large demand for polymer composites with high electrical resistivity and good thermal conductivity for use as substrates for passive thermal management. Achieving this goal will allow for more efficient energy use as it will reduce the need for active cooling processes. Here we designed highly oriented nanocomposites of boron nitride embedded in a polymer matrix. The interface between boron nitride and the polymer matrix was varied with a range of small molecule compatiblizers. Impact of particle distribution and surface modification was correlated to thermal performance. Critical thermophysical properties include the thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and latent heat of any phase/state change for the polymer matrix.