||The lens through which we view materials is often the limiting factor in developing a more complete understanding of material structure and behavior. Probes which capture critically small changes across time and length scales both during materials synthesis and application are being developed. Examples include time-resolved diffraction, X-ray microbeam techniques, and the characterization of nanostructures without long-range periodic ordering. This symposium focuses on recent developments in structural characterization methods and their applications. Particular emphasis is on X-ray, neutron and electron diffraction and spectroscopic methods such as EELS, EXAFS, Raman, FTIR, and terahertz and their uses to characterize crystal structure, local structure, microstructure, composition, and strain at multiple length and time scales. The objective of this symposium is to introduce attendees to both novel techniques and novel applications of traditional techniques so as to facilitate the development of advanced materials.