Half of neodymium and praseodymium production, key ingredients in permanent magnets, is produced illegally. About 60% of cobalt production, critical in Li-ion batteries and other applications, comes from central African states, and much of it produced illegally. Tantalum, important in modern electronics, is primarily sourced from central African states and again illegally. Illegal mineral production, as exemplified here, can fund conflict. Furthermore, it is typically conducted with scant regard for human rights and environmental standards. It also leads to depressed prices which in turn limits the possibility of legitimate producers entering the market. A system of traceability and cooperative supply chain participants can limit the production of illegitimate material and thereby improve conditions in the country of origin and reduce downward pressure on prices. This paper discusses traceability options.