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Meeting 2018 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Symposium Advances in Additive Manufacturing of Titanium and Titanium Based Alloys
Presentation Title Investigating Sources of Porosity in Electron Beam-based Directed Energy Deposition of Titanium Components
Author(s) Kyle Snyder, Richard Martukanitz, Scott Stecker
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Kyle Snyder
Abstract Scope Porosity is a common issue in additive manufacturing of titanium and its alloys, causing detrimental effects on mechanical properties and limiting potential applications for high performance components. The goal of this research was to establish sources and root causes of pore formation in electron beam processing and determine their influence on porosity. Two potential sources were identified, porosity from hydrogen evolution and aluminum vaporization. A factorial experiment was designed to evaluate the effects of hydrogen evolution through filler wire quality and the effects of aluminum vaporization by varying the aluminum content in the filler wire by using Ti-6Al-4V and CP-Ti alloys. Optical microscopy and stereology methods were used to determine the total pore volume for each condition. Statistical approaches were applied to improve the interpretation of the response variable (porosity) in terms of the independent variables. These methods indicated significant effects from main factors and interactions between factors.
Proceedings Inclusion? Planned: Supplemental Proceedings volume


A Fully Integrated Model for the Prediction of Location-specific Yield Strength in Electron Beam Additively Manufactured Ti-6Al-4V
A History of Titanium Additive Manufacturing for Air Vehicle Structures
Additive Manufacturing in a High Temperature Environment with Sensor Monitoring to a Closed-loop In-situ Feedback Control
Additive Manufacturing of Ti-Cu Alloys
Addressing the Challenges for Additively Manufacturing Ti-6Al-4V Components for Structural Applications
Characterization of Titanium Interpenetrating Phase Composites Formed through Additive Manufacturing and Spark Plasma Sintering
Coupling Laser Path Planning to the Formation Lack of Fusion Defects on Top Layers of Abbreviated Builds in Direct Metal Laser Melting of Ti-6Al-4V
Development of Bio-compatible Beta Ti Alloy Powders for Additive Manufacturing of for Application in Patient-specific Orthopaedic Implants
Development of Post-Processing Technologies to Improve the Reliability of Additively Manufactured Titanium Alloy Components
Effect of Build Direction on Microstructure and Tensile Properties of Ti-6Al-4V Sheet Fabricated by Selective Electron Beam Melting
Effect of Geometry on the Porosity and Microstructure of Additively Manufactured Titanium
Effect of Scan Patterns on Microstructure Evolution of Ti6Al4V Alloy
Effects of Beam Focus and Shape on Microstructure and Defect Characteristics in an E-beam AM Ti-6Al-4V Alloy: A Synchrotron X-ray Micro-CT Study
ICME Design, Modeling, and Accelerated Qualification of Additively Manufactured Ti-based Alloys
In-situ Investigation of Microstructure Evolution during Annealing in Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Produced by Additive Manufacturing
In-situ Microstructural Control in Ti-6Al-4V during Selective Laser Melting – from Fine Acicular α' Martensite to Various Forms of Lamellar α+β
Insight on Process Development of Titanium Aluminide Alloy(s) during Laser In-situ Alloying
Intrinsic Heat Treatment of Titanium Alloys during Selective Laser Melting
Investigating Sources of Porosity in Electron Beam-based Directed Energy Deposition of Titanium Components
Investigation of Fabrication of Ti64 Components Using Hybrid Additive Manufacturing
Microstructure Characterisation and Mechanical Properties of Ti-6Al-4V with Grain Refinement Made by Direct Laser Fabrication
Microstructure, Defect and Mechanical Properties of gamma TiAl alloys Additively Manufactured by Selective Electron Beam Melting
Modeling the Effects of Alloying on Microstructure Formation under Additive Manufacturing Conditions
Non-destructive Characterization of Porosity Distributions in Additively-manufactured Ti Parts
Numerical and Experimental Study of As-built Powder Bed Fused Ti6Al4V Component
Optimization of Additive Manufacturing Process for Ti-6Al-4V via Integrated Computational Materials Engineering and Sequential Minimum Energy Design Approach
Platforms for High throughput Structure-property Characterizations to Support Machine Learning Approaches to Additive Manufacturing
Predicting the Solidification Microstructure of Pulsed-LPBF Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Using Phase-field Modelling
Processing Modalities of Ti-6Al-4V Fabricated via Additive Manufacturing
Scientifically Based Probability Modeling for Additive Manufacturing of Ti-6Al-4V
Sensitivity of Ti-6Al-4V Components to Oxidation during out of Chamber Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing
Solid-state Additive Manufacturing and Repair of Titanium Alloys
Structure Evolution and Strain Relaxation in Biocompatible Ti-6Al-4V Alloys Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting with Different Built Orientation
Swedish Initiatives for Additive Manufacturing of Titanium Alloy Components for Aerospace Applications
The Effect of Boron on the Grain Size and Texture in Additively Manufactured β-Ti Alloys
The Effects of Electrically-assisted Ultrasonic Nanocrystal Surface Modification on 3D-printed Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
Thermodynamic Database for Multi-component Ti-Based Alloys and TiAl-based Materials
Ti-6Al-4V by Selective Laser Melting: How Microstructure and Porosity Influence the Mechanical Properties
Titanium Based Metal-matrix Composites via In-situ Nitridation: Microstructure and Tribological Properties
Tuning Microstructural Evolution in Additively Manufactured Ti Alloys Using High throughput Experimental Approaches
Understanding Light-matter Interaction, Melt Pool Dynamics and Spatter Formation in Laser Powder Bed Fusion Processing
Validation of a High Integrity Joining/ Repair Process for Aerospace Materials

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