Commonly referred to as closed-die forging, impression-die forging of steel, aluminium, titanium and other alloys can produce an almost unlimited variety of 3D shapes ranging in weight from few kilograms to over 25 tons. Impression-die forgings are routinely produced on hydraulic presses, mechanical presses and hammers, with capacities up to 50,000 tons, 20,000 tons and 50,000 lbs., respectively.
A kinematically admissible velocity field is obtained by minimizing the total forging energy rate. A computer program is developed to accelerate execution while maintaining a fairly high degree of accuracy and wide prediction capability. The information from this analysis is useful in designing forging processes and dies. Results for the prediction of forging loads and stresses, metal flow and surface profiles with the assured benefits in terms of press selection and blank perform design are outlined in some detail. The obtained predictions are ready for comparison with both laboratory and industrial results.