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Meeting Magnesium Workshop Madrid 2013
Symposium Magnesium Workshop Madrid 2013
Presentation Title Material Characterization and Continuum Modeling of Commercial Grade AZ31B and ZEK100 Magnesium Alloy Sheets
Author(s) Michael Worswick, Srihari Kurukuri, Dariush G. Tari, Jon T. Carter, Raja K. Mishra
On-Site Speaker (Planned) Michael Worswick
Abstract Scope Wrought magnesium alloys are attractive for automotive industry applications due to their low density and high specific strength. However, commercial magnesium alloys, such as AZ31B sheet usually have poor formability at room temperature due to limited activity of slip systems. Additionally, due to the twinning deformation mechanism activated in specific loading directions, magnesium alloys exhibit an asymmetric stress-strain response in uniaxial tension and compression tests. The formability of magnesium alloys can be improved by deforming at elevated temperatures; however, warm forming requires more complex tooling setup which increases the cost of the forming operation. Alternatively, the formability can be improved by the addition of rare-earth elements such as Ce, Nd, Y and Gd, for example, which have been shown to weaken the basal texture. The aim of this work is to compare and identify the effect of initial crystallographic texture on the mechanical response of commercial AZ31B-O and rare-earth ZEK100 magnesium alloy sheets in light of known deformation mechanisms operating at different orientations and strain rates. Tensile and compression testing was performed on AZ31B and ZEK100 sheets along different directions to characterize the material response under a wide range of temperature (23-250C) and strain rate (0.001s-1-1000s-1). A digital image correlation system (DIC) was used to capture the evolution of plastic strain during the deformation. Three point bend tests were also performed on the AZ31B samples and surface strain on the tensile surface of the bend was measured using the DIC method. The instantaneous R-values and their evolution with respect to the plastic strain were measured from the tensile and compressive DIC data. The ZEK100 sheet exhibits strong in-plane anisotropy both in tension and compression as the orientation changes from the RD to TD. The low to high strain rate experiments reveal a significant orientation dependence of the strain rate sensitivity of ZEK100. In contrast, the rate sensitivity of AZ31B, while pronounced, does not depend upon loading direction. In the RD, the rate sensitivity of ZEK100 is manifest in significant changes in yield strength, but only mild changes in hardening rate. In contrast, along the TD, the yield strength is not affected by strain rate, while the hardening rate increases significantly with strain rate. This behavior is attributed to different deformation mechanisms being activated at different strain rates depending on the load path, sheet orientation and texture. As temperature is increased, the degree of anisotropy and asymmetry is reduced for both alloys. An evolving asymmetric/anisotropic continuum-based approach, adopting Cazacu-Plunkett-Barlat (CPB) yield surfaces, is proposed to model the complex behavior of magnesium alloys at room and elevated temperatures. The model shows that the material response of AZ31B at room temperature is highly anisotropic and asymmetric; while a minor asymmetry between uniaxial tension and compression results is predicted at elevated temperature, consistent with experimental data. The proposed material model is used to simulate 3-point bending experiments on AZ31B and predict both the load-displacement response as well as the distribution of strains on the outer bend radius. The results of the simulation using the new “evolving continuum model” compare well with experimental data over predictions using other material models such as classical von Mises and non-evolving CPB based models.
Proceedings Inclusion? Definite: Metallurgical and Materials Transactions


3D Polycrystalline Continuum Model of Deformation Mechanisms in Rolled Magnesium Alloys
A Novel Approach to Mg Alloy Sheet Development by Combined Thixomolding and Thermomechanically Processing
A Review on Severe Plastic Deformation of the Magnesium Alloy AZ31
Advanced Processing for Advanced Performance of Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy
An in-depth TEM/SAXS Study of Ageing-Induced Precipitation in MgZn
An Investigation of the Local Mechanical Response at the Grain Level for Magnesium
Analysis of the Protective Behaviour of Different Inhibitors for Magnesium Investment Casting
Applying Taguchi Method for Optimization of Pulsed TIG Welding Process Parameters of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Weldments
Beyond Binaries: Solid Solution Strengthening and Softening in Magnesium
Bias Fields and Cast Microstructure
Characterisation of Nano-scaled Precipitates in a Peak Aged Mg-8Gd-2Dy Alloy
Characterization of Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Friction Stir Welded AZ31 by Thermal Aging
Combination of High Resolution Experiments and ab initio Calculations to Design Ductile Mg Alloys
Comparison of the Tensile Deformation Mechanisms in Rolled AZ31 and Extruded MN11 Mg Alloys as a Function of Temperature
Comparison Study of Microstructure and Phase Evolution in Mg-Nd, Mg-Gd and Mg-Gd-Nd Based Alloys
Correlation Between the Microstructure and Corrosion Resistance of AZ91D, WE43 and Elektron Magnesium Alloys
Creep and Fatigue Behaviour of Calcium-containing AZ91 Magnesium Alloys
Creep Deformation Mechanisms in Magnesium Alloy AZ31
Damage during High Temperature Deformation of Mg Alloys Studied by Continous 3D Characterisation
Deformation Behavior of Magnesium Single Crystals
Deformation Behavior of Mg-Zn-Ca Alloy Sheets under Biaxial Loading
Deformation Behavior of Mg Sheet Alloy Under Uniaxial and Biaxial Loading Conditions
Deformation Mechanisms in Magnesium Characterized by Single Crystal Indentation
Deformation Mechanisms of Magnesium Alloys
Deformation Structures and Recrystallization in Magnesium Single Crystals
Developing Superplasticity in Magnesium Alloys through Severe Plastic Deformation
Development of a Crystal Plasticity Model for Mg Alloys
Development of Grain Refiner for Mg Alloys
Development of Highly Formable Micro-alloyed Mg Sheet Alloys
Development of the Thermodynamic Description of the Gd-Mg-Zn and Mg-Y-Zn Systems by Considering the Experimental Microstructures
Development of Very High Strength and Ductile Mg-alloys by Dispersion of Quasicrystal Phase
Direct Strip Casting of AZ31B Sheet Material
Effect of Heat Input On AZ31-Magnesium Alloy of Pulsed-TIG Weldments
Effect of Mg2Sn Precipitate on Microstructure and Texture Evolution of Hot Deformed Mg-Al-Sn Alloy
Effect of Microstructure and Texture on Scratch Response of the Magnesium Alloy Mg-3.5Y-2.3Nb-0.5Zr
Effect of Yttrium on the Texture of Mg Alloy Sheet
Effect of Zn Content on the Volume Fraction of Twinning in Mg and Mg-2.3Zn Alloy
Effects of Alloying Elements on Ideal Strength, Stacking Fault, and Twinnability of Mg-base Alloys by First-principles Calculations
Enhanced Mechanical Response of Hierarchical Mg Nano-Composite as a Function of Temperature
Evaluating the Plastic Anisotropy of AZ31 using Microscopy Techniques
Evolution of Pore Morphology of Magnesium Foam during Compression
Fatigue Behavior of Magnesium Single Crystals under Cyclic Loadings
First-Principles Investigation of Mg-Rare Earth Precipitates and LPSO Structures
First-Principles Modeling of Deformation Mechanisms in Mg and Mg Alloys
Friction and Wear Behavior of Nanostructured AZ91D Magnesium Alloy Under Oil-Lubricated Conditions
Friction Stir Welding for Similar and Dissimilar Joints of Magnesium and Aluminum Alloys
Geometric Features of Kink Bands in Deformed Mg-Zn-Y Alloys with LPSO Phase
Grain Structure in Friction Spot Weld of Magnesium Alloy AZ31
High Strength Magnesium Alloys Strengthened by Synchronized LPSO Phase
Hot Deformation Behavior and Workability Characteristics of AZ91 Magnesium Alloy Powder Compacts
Identifying the Deformation Mechanisms in Coarse- and Fine-grained Mg-Zn-Zr Alloy by Analysis of Acoustic Emission
In-situ Synchrotron Diffraction of Magnesium Matrix Composites: Influence of SiC Particles on Plastic Deformation
Influence of Ca, Mn and Ce-Rich Mischmetal Additions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-6Zn-1Y Alloy
Influence of Heat Treatment on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of an Extruded Mg95.5Zn1.5Y3 Alloy
Influence of Processing Parameters on the Microstructural Evolution of a WE43 Alloy during Friction Stir Welding
Influence of the Extrusion Conditions and the Neodymium Content on the Microstructure, the Texture and the Deformation Behaviour of Magnesium-manganese Alloys
Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME) for Development of Magnesium Alloys, Manufacturing Processes and Engineering Products
Investigation of Deformation Mechanisms in Cast Magensium Using Advanced In-Situ Methods
Lattice Strain Evolution during In-situ Deformation of AZ31 Alloy using Conventional Laboratory X-ray Diffraction
Material Characterization and Continuum Modeling of Commercial Grade AZ31B and ZEK100 Magnesium Alloy Sheets
Measuring the Critical Resolved Shear Stresses in Mg Alloys by Instrumented Nanoindentation
Mechanical Properties of AZ31B Magnesium Alloy Processed by I-ECAP
Mechanism-based Behavior and Texture-independent Hall-Petch Relation of a Mg–3Al–1Zn Alloy
Mg Sheet and Tube Warm Forming: from Incremental to Electromagnetic Forming
Microcompression Investigation of Slip and Twinning in Pure Mg Single Crystals
Microcompression Study of Orientation and Alloying Effects in Single Crystalline AZ31
Microstructural Evaluation of Impact Zone of SiC Particulate Reinforced AZ91D Magnesium Alloys under Ballistic Impact on a Specially Designed Gravitational Ballistic Test Apparatus
Microstructure and Mechanical Behaviour of PM MgGd1Zn0.5(at.% ) Alloy
Microstructure of Ultrafine-grained WE43+12wt%Zn Magnesium Alloy after Severe Plastic Deformation
Modeling of Dynamic Recrystallization in Magnesium Alloys Using a Coupled Crystal Plasticity FEM and Probabilistic Model
Nanotwins in Nanocrystalline Mg Alloys: An Insight from High-resolution TEM and Molecular Dynamics Simulation
New Developments in the Field of Wrought Magnesium Alloys
Obvious Grain Growth at Initial Stage of Hot Compression of a Fine-grained AZ31 Commercial Sheet
P10: Unique Features at the Start of Friction Stir Welds in AZ80 Plate
P11: Weld Seam Characterisation for Extruded AZ31 Magnesium Alloy
P12: Evaluation of Tribology of Magnesium Alloy in Plastic Deformation
P13: Role of Nanoscale Boron Carbide Particulates on the Microstructural Evolution and Tensile Response of Mg/1.5B4C Composites
P14: Modification of Pure Mg Anodized Surface by Pulse Power Additional Glycerol for Biodegradable Material
P15: Deformation Modes in Mg (0001)- and (01-11)-oriented Single Crystals: Simulations vs. Experiments
P16: Kink-deformed Microstructures in LPSO-Mg Alloys
P17: Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy after Multi-temperature Equal Channel Angular Pressing
P18: The Orientation Dependence of Strain Hardening and Texture Development in an Extruded Magnesium Alloy during Compression
P19: Dislocation Structure of <0001> and <11-20> Mg Single Crystals under Quasi-static and Dynamic Loading Compressions
P1: Effect of Manganese Carbonate Addition on the Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of AZ80 Alloy
P20: Mechanical Properties of Magnesium and AZ31 Nano-pillars
P21: Core Structure of Long Periodic Stacking Order Phases in Mg-RE Alloys
P22: Application of Stereological Method for Measurement of Five-parameter Grain Boundary Distribution in AZ31 Magnesium Alloy
P23: Effects of Microstructure on Compression Behavior of AM80 Mg Alloy
P24: Development of Protective Surface Oxides on AZ31 via Microalloying Additions
P25: Corrosion Inhibition by Turmeric Extract
P26: Ignition Resistance of CaO Added Mg-Al Alloys for Commercial Aircraft Components
P27: New Ignition-resistant Magnesium Alloys
P28: The Effect of Al2O3 Content on Properties of Cold Spraying Al-Al2O3 Composite Coating Deposited on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy
P29: Influence of Corrosion Damage on Fatigue Behaviour of AZ31 Magnesium Alloy
P2: Effect of the Processing Route on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-Zn-Y-RE Alloy
P30: Produce of Al/Mg/Al Laminate Composite using Hot Roll Bonding
P31: Effects of Cerium on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of as-extruded ZK60 Alloy
P3: The Microstructure Evolution of Wrought Twin Roll Cast AZ31B Magnesium Alloys Sheet for Different Strain Rates and Temperatures
P4: Final Assessment of Pre-Industrial Solid-State Route for High Performance Mg-System Alloys Production: Conclusion of the Green Metallurgy EU Project
P5: Influence of Calcium Additions on the Microstructure and Properties of Commercial Magnesium Alloy AZ91
P6: Melt Quality and Tensile Property Relationship in HPDC of AM60
P7: The Effect of Dry Plunge Milling Conditions on Surface Integrity of a Wrought Mg-Zn-Zr-RE Alloy
P8: The Effect of Machining Conditions on the Surface Integrity and Fatigue Life of a Wrought Mg-Zn-Zr-RE Alloy
P9: The Effect of Strain Rate and Temperature on Microstructural Evolution in Pure Magnesium during ECAE
Precipitation and Strengthening in Magnesium Alloys
Precipitation Hardening of Microalloyed Mg-Zn Based Alloys
Process-Structure-Property Correlation of Mg-(5.6Ti+1SiC)BM Composite
Quantification of Internal Stresses in Magnesium
Quantitative Characterization of Precipitate Microstructures in Magnesium Alloys
Sheet Metal Fabrication of High Aluminum Content Magnesium Alloys using Twin-roll Casting Process
Solute-atom Clustering and Precursor Atmospheric Ordering in LPSO Mg-Zn-Gd Alloys
Stabilization of an HCP-Li Phase at Room Temperature in a Mg-Li Alloy by High Pressure Torsion
Static Recrystallization Behavior of Cold-rolled Mg-Y(-Zn) Magnesium Alloys
STEM Investigations of Synchronized LPSO Structures in Mg-Zn-Y Alloys
Strengthening Wrought Magnesium Alloys
Temperature and Strain Rate Effects on the Deformation Behaviour of Extruded AZ31 and MN11 Magnesium Alloys
Tensile Properties and Microstructure of Mg-Sc Alloys with Ordered-BCC/HCP Dual-phase
Texture Modification and Microstructural Design of AZ31 Mg Alloy Plate for Better Formability
The Crystallography of Shear and Shuffles of Twinning in Hexagonal Close-packed Structures and Mobility of a Faceted {1012} || (0 0 0 1) - {1010} Boundary
The Effect of Neodymium on the Deformation Behavior of Extruded Mg-1Mn(wt%)
The Effect of Rare Earth Alloying Additions on the Hot Deformation and Recrystallisation Behaviour of Magnesium-based Alloys
The ExoMet Project: EU/ESA Research on High-Performance Light-Metal Alloys and Nano-Composites
The Microstructure and Texture of Cerium-containing Magnesium-zinc Sheets
The Texture and Microstructure Evolution in Two Alloying Systems of Mg-Zn-Ce and Mg-Zn-Nd after High Speed Rolling
Thermodynamics Database and Kinetics Simulation for Mg Alloy Design
Twin Nucleation, Propagation and Detwinning: Characterization and Modeling
Twinning or Phase Transformation? A New Perspective on {10-12}<10-1-1> Twinning in Magnesium
Ultrastrong Mg-Alloy via Nano-Spaced Stacking Faults
Understanding the Influence of Dilute Rare-Earth Additions on Texture in Wrought Magnesium Alloys
Ab Initio and Atomistic Study of Generalized Stacking Fault Energies in Mg and Mg-Y Alloys

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