For years after initial discoveries in the late 1880s, only fractional experimental work was carried out on SCC and interest in this subject took a theoretical, rather than a practical, turn. However, by the beginning of the 20th century this had changed; a change prompted when SCC was detected in brass condenser tubes in the rapidly growing electric power industry. In the mid-1940s, SCC was acknowledged as one of the most important areas of engineering research, and since the early 1960s, SCC (and especially corrosion fatigue) has been responsible for many, if not most, service failures in numerous applications where components and structures come into contact with natural or technological environment – whether aqueous solution, gas, elevated temperature, or radiation. Despite the progress that has been made, researchers are still far from solving many problems related to SCC. Almost on a monthly basis, SCC manifests itself in new and unexpected ways. This review will outline the present state of knowledge and current controversies concerning mechanisms of SCC and corrosion fatigue.