Metallography has long enabled imaging across multiple length scales from large grains to tiny inclusions. Microstructure and chemistry of metals determine performance in infrastructure, automotive, aerospace and consumer applications. This paper illustrates how modern microscopic techniques have evolved as metallurgical requirements have continued to challenge metallographers and analytical scientists. Increasingly driven by the need to extract myriad quantitative datasets, multiscale optical, X-ray, and electron techniques have redefined microscopy beyond “imaging”, becoming additionally a source of analytical photons, X-rays and electrons - generated, collected and analysed in-situ in two, three and four dimensions. Techniques described include EDX, EBSD, diffraction contrast tomography, Raman spectroscopy, mineralogy, technical cleanliness and particle analysis. Thus metallography now offers a multiscale laboratory in a single solution, potentially replacing multiple imaging, spectroscopic, crystallographic, tomographical, morphological, measurement and wet chemical technologies. The microscope has evolved into a "Nanolab" solving problems and advancing performance and resilience in the modern world.