In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional cyanidation process for refractory gold ores, the smelting processes have been proposed. These smelting processes could be divided into two kinds, namely, indirect smelting and direct smelting. In the indirect smelting process, the calcine of refractory gold ores are added in the copper or lead smelting processes during which gold can be enriched into copper matte or crude lead. Then gold is extracted from the anode slimes. In the direct smelting process, refractory gold ores are smelted directly with gold enriched into antimony matte or ferrous matte. Then gold is extracted by hydrometallurgical method. Based on the direct smelting process, the metallurgy-beneficiation united process for refractory gold ores has been proposed. In this process, gold is firstly enriched into antimony matte or ferrous matte by direct smelting, then grinding-flotation process is used to obtain gold-rich sulfurous iron ore, and finally gold is extracted via hydrometallurgical method. The metallurgy-beneficiation united process has advantages of high gold recovery ratio, environment-friendly and low cost, it provided a new idea for the extraction of gold from refractory gold ores.