This talk presents an overview and examples of material design and development using 1) classical thermodynamics; 2) CALPHAD modeling; and 3) ICME approaches. Although the examples are given in aluminum and magnesium alloys for structural applications, the fundamental methodology and modeling principles are applicable to all materials. The examples have demonstrated the effectiveness and limitations of classical thermodynamics in solving specific problems (ex. nucleation during solidification and solid-state precipitation in aluminum alloys). Computational thermodynamics and CALPHAD modeling, when combined with critical experimental validation, have been used to guide the selection and design of new magnesium alloys for elevated-temperature applications. The future of material design and development will be based on a holistic ICME approach. However, key challenges exist in many aspects of ICME framework, such as the lack of diffusion/mobility databases for many materials systems, limitation of current microstructural modeling capability, integration tools for simulation codes of different length scales.