The studies on dynamics in glassy materials are particularly challenging because of their strongly disordered atomic nature. In the picture of potential energy landscape (PEL), the evolution of inherent structure (IS) energy can be attributed to the competitions between activations and relaxations. In particular, whether glasses will undergo aging or rejuvenation depends on whether the activation barrier is smaller or larger than the relaxation energy. We prepared 6 metallic glass samples with different thermal histories (from 10^13 K/s to 10^9 K/s), and further explored their activation barrier and relaxation energy spectra through advanced atomistic sampling technique. The spectra are found sensitive to the systems’ IS energy. Stemmed from such dependence, a self-consistent equation in describing IS energy evolution has been derived. Without any empirical parameter, this equation can well explain the equilibrium line of supercooled liquid and the cooling curves at different rates directly obtained by MD studies.