Cold spray is being touted as a ‘near-net shape’ manufacturing technology that minimizes material waste due to high rate of deposition. During the cold spray process, metallic bulk components can be produced by spraying metal powders at high velocity, generating bonding through severe plastic deformation at temperatures well below the melting point of the powders. To fully understand the cold spray processing of metal powders, we compare and study the bonding features and microstructure evolution in Cu, Ni, Al, Ti, Ti-6Al-4V samples prepared by cold spray using EBSD, TEM and nanoindentation. We show complex microstructure in these powder particles after cold spraying: nanocrystalline, nanotwins, gradient grains, deformation bands, dynamic recovery and recrystallization. The effects of gas temperature and powder velocity on the microstructure and mechanical properties in the cold sprayed samples are also discussed. Of particular interest are grain refinement, recrystallization and particle/particle bonding mechanisms of the cold sprayed powders.