Two photon polymerization utilizes femtosecond laser (e.g., a titanium:sapphire laser) pulses to excite photoinitiator molecules within a photosensitive resin for selective polymerization of photosensitive materials. Polymerization occurs at locations within the resin where the excitation threshold of the photoinitiator is exceeded. Polymerization of structures with microscale and nanoscale features is possible since the two photon absorption process exhibits a nonlinear relationship with the incident light intensity. The minimum feature size obtained with two photon polymerization is dependent on a variety of processing parameters, such as laser power, photosensitivity, and voxel-voxel distance. Two photon polymerization has been used to create variety of structures with microscale and nanoscale features out of zirconium oxide hybrid materials and other organically-modified ceramic materials. For example, tissue engineering scaffolds and micromedical devices have been processed using two photon polymerization. The chemical, biological, and functional properties of these two photon polymerization-created structures will be considered.