The transportation industry used 55% of the oil worldwide in 2006, and mobility projections show that it is expected to triple by 2050 with associated energy use. Its global use of lightweight materials reached 68.5 million tons in 2011. The aircraft industry was the first to introduce aluminum alloys in a widespread basis in 1920s, followed by the introduction of composite materials. This trend was then adopted by the automobile industry in the 1990s and later by the shipbuilding industry. The approach of reducing weight by downsizing in order to meet stringent fuel consumption requirements, yet meeting safety standards and consumer preferences is now being followed by other alternatives. One of these is the development of strong, tough, stiff, environmental friendly, cost effective, reliable and light-weight materials, using a system design approach. A significant number of nano, nanostructured and nano hybrid materials systems have also been deployed.