Modifying the nanostructure/chemistry of materials allows to optimize their properties . Our strategy rests on creating nanopatterns that act as surface cues [2,3] and affect cell behavior. Chemical oxidation was found to create unique nanostructured topographies , becoming a general strategy for affecting biocompatibility. Our treatment promotes the growth of certain cells while inhibiting that of others, without using growth factors. Nanostructured Ti surfaces selectively inhibit fibroblast growth and promote osteogenic cell activity  in vitro. Further enhancement of mechano-biocompatibility may occur by coating with spider silk . Enhancement of antibacterial properties using nanoscale strategies will also be discussed.
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