Bioinspired materials research is a continuously growing field in interdisciplinary materials science and –engineering with large potential for generating novel functional materials. Biotemplating is a technique, which employs naturally occurring structured resources (plant tissue, wood, lignocellulosics, beetle and butterfly scales, microorganisms, algae, bacteria, viruses etc.) and processed materials (paper, cardboard, fiberboard, composites) as starting materials for the manufacturing of inorganic compounds. Owing to their structural diversity, natural materials can be used at various levels from the molecular scale up to complex three-dimensional parts. The replication of structural details of complex biological tissues over several levels of hierarchy down to the nanometer level is a major challenge. The presentation introduces the current knowledge about the replication of hierarchical biological materials into structural and functional inorganic materials with the special emphasis on wood and cellulose templates.