What if we could image dislocation networks under load? Of course this is possible with electron microscopy but high resolution coherent imaging with light (x-rays) offers the possibility of characterizing behavior in the bulk. This is just one example of how coherent imaging has the potential to transform materials science. In this case, one can imagine a combination of orientation mapping, strain mapping and defect imaging, all in 3D, all in the bulk, which allows the heterogeneity of plastic deformation to be quantified. In addition, the way in which dislocations interact with grain boundaries and particles in general could be better understood. Such capability will impact the validation of, e.g., dislocation dynamics models, and our understanding of practical problems such as the role of second phase particles in creep strength and crack propagation. Other examples of impact beyond structural materials will also be discussed.