Thermal processing is an integral part of material and device development. Low thermal budget processing of materials is critical to exploit their unique properties for highly functional device development on unconventional substrates such as paper and plastic. Extensive R&D efforts are focused on the low-temperature development of a wide range of discrete and integrated devices for electronic applications, such as thin film transistors, energy harvesting and storage devices, organic electronics, RFIDs, interconnects, and sensors The present talk highlights the role of temperature in defining the device technology and R&D challenges. The impact of the roll-to-roll compatible photonic pulse thermal processing technique in the development of cost-effective, high yield, and high quality integrated thin films and devices with optimum performance/cost tradeoff on low-temperature substrates is discussed. Advances in the thin film processing, direct-write printing techniques, and low-thermal budget curing technology offer new opportunities for flexible electronics combined with the Internet of Things (IoT). Specific examples from our research work on multifunctional sensor platform development, and diverse nanomaterials and thin film integration are included in the presentation.