Two different types of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques were employed to characterize mechanical performance of polymer matrix composites (PMCs), which will be applied to railway truck frame materials, during tensile testing. The NDE techniques for this investigation were infrared (IR) thermography and ultrasonic testing (UT). Prior to mechanical testing, UT C-scanning was used to obtain defect distribution in PMC sample, and a high-speed infrared camera was used to measure surface temperature changes during tensile testing. In order to monitor tensile damage evolution of specimens, through the IR thermographic image analysis, tensile failure behavior was qualitatively monitored. Moreover, the microstructural characterization using scanning electron microscope (SEM) was performed to correlate the mechanical failure mode with thermographic results. In this investigation, an IR camera, UT C-scan, and SEM investigation were used to facilitate a better understanding of damage evolution and failure mode of railway truck materials during tensile testing.