Laser-based techniques such as two photon polymerization, stereolithography, excimer laser-based direct writing and have been used to create structures with microscale and nanoscale features for medical applications. For example, two photon polymerization involves use of a femtosecond laser to selectively polymerize and harden photosensitive resins. Polymerization takes place at locations in the photosensitive resin where the excitation threshold of the photoinitiator is exceeded. 3d printing of structures containing nanoscale features is possible due to the fact that two photon absorption has a nonlinear relationship with incident light intensity. Two photon polymerization has been used to create structures out of photosensitive polymers, zirconium oxide hybrid materials, and organically-modified ceramic materials. Several types of medically-relevant surfaces, such as tissue engineering scaffolds, sensors, and drug delivery devices, have been prepared using two photon polymerization. In this talk, biological and functional evaluation of 3d-printed structures will be considered.