Nanocellulose as the sustainable materials can form flexible or strong networks that are suitable templates for artificial nanostructure with enhanced electrochemical performances. Here, we prepared single crystalline nanostructure via hydrothermal method using transition metal oxide precursor and TEMPO oxidized
cellulose nanofibers. Oxide nanobelts with high aspect ratio are structurally uniform and single crystalline. The as-prepared and carbonized oxide nanobelts are compared regarding electrochemical performance for Li-ion batteries. Carbonized nanocellulose-metal oxide hybrid nanostructure prepared fast charging and discharging capability with high capacity and long cycle performances. Our hybrid nanostructure can provide a new route into the development of high capacity, unique architecture, and suitable electrode potential for promising electrode materials.