Refractory mineral resources are abundant in China, and can be utilized to fabricate advanced refractory products. It not only can improve the value of refractory minerals, but can boost the energy efficiency and reduce mineral wastes. In this paper, with the aim of reducing the increasingly serious energy shortage burden with the rapid economic development, some of our investigations on study on the high-performance utilization of refractory mineral resources were introduced, such as refractory clay, magnesite, bauxite, dolomite and quartz. Spinel-Sialon, Spinel/CA, and light-weight anorthite/mullite refractory composites were synthesized by various routes from those raw materials. Besides, a view of synthesizing Sialon powders from minerals and ores was also illustrated, based on the chemical composition analysis and structure feature of mineralogy characters. These might serve as new technical approaches for efficient utilization of mineral resources.