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Meeting 2014 TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition
Symposium Celebrating the Megascale: An EPD Symposium in Honor of David G.C.Robertson
Presentation Title Redoubling Platinum Group Metal Smelting Intensity - Operational Challenges and Solutions
Author(s) , Lloyd Nelson, Bertus de Villiers, July Ndlovu, Diale Mokwena, Phillimon Mukumbe, Bart Pieterse, Whitey Seyanund, Paul van Manen
On-Site Speaker (Planned)
Abstract Scope The 2003 redoubling in power to 68MW on the Polokwane Smelter furnace represented a significant intensification in platinum group metal (PGM) smelting. Combined with onerous ‘green’ PGM concentrate smelting requirements, this yielded conditions unusually corrosive to copper coolers and refractories. This presented unexpected operational and design challenges to reliable crucible operation and maintenance.Combined with specific operational control intervention, development of protective coatings has led to the life of water-cooled copper components improving from 9 to 40 months. The furnace matte endwall was extended in 2010 to address accelerated wear of refractories and the potential risk for contact of copper components by superheated matte. An 18 month planned endwall rebuild cycle has been demonstrated (versus catastrophic failure within 9 months).Finally, benefits including lower energy consumption, improved metal recoveries and higher productivity resulting from operational and in-house design developments will be described, that justify “Celebrating the Megascale” in PGM smelting.
Proceedings Inclusion? Planned: A print-only volume


A Computational Fluid Dynamics Model for a Novel Flash Ironmaking Process
A Methodology for Modeling Electromagnetic Confinement Systems: Application to Levitation Melting
A New Approach to Investigating Coke Reactivity
An Electromagnetically Stirred Slurry Model for the Smelting Zone of a Ferroalloy Furnace
Analysis of Steelmaking Reactions by Coupled Reaction Model
Application of the Combined Reactors Method for Analysis of Steelmaking Process
Arc Detection in DC Arc Furnaces
Arsenic and Antimony Capacities in Ni-Cu Mattes and Slags
Carbothermic Reduction of Ilmenite Concentrate with Coke Assisted by High Energy Ball Milling
ChemSheet as a Simulation Platform for Pyrometallurgical Processes
Cold Modelling of Splashing Phenomena in Oxygen Steelmaking
Computational Modelling of Metallurgical Processes: Achievements and Challenges
Crystallization Behavior of Molten Blast Furnace Slag Using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope
Current and Suggested Focus on Sustainability in Pyrometallurgy
Current Status and Future Direction of Low-emission Integrated Steelmaking Process
David Gordon Campbell Robertson: A Biographical Sketch
DC Arc Furnaces - Past, Present, and Future
Decomposition of Methane during Oxide Reduction Using Natural Gas
Delivering a National Process Design Unit with Industry Support
Development of a Thermodynamic Database for Mold Flux and Application to the Continuous Casting Process for Steelmaking
Developments in Manganese Ferroalloy Research and Production in the Last 25 Years
Electrically Enhanced Metal Purification Using Slag
Electricity-independent Generation of Si Based on the Use of Rice Husk: A Concept Process
Electrochemical Characterization and Modeling of a Solid Oxide Membrane-based Electrolyzer for Production of Magnesium and Oxygen
Enhancement of Pyrometallurgical Teaching Using Excel Simulation Models
Evolution of the Large Copper Smelter – 1800s to 2013
Evolution of the Mega-scale in Ferro-alloy Electric Furnace Smelting
Ferroalloy Induced Precipitates in Continuously Cast Microalloyed Steels
Flow Sheet Based Approach Coupled with Application of Thermodynamics for the Modelling of Various Iron and Steelmaking Processes
Fluid Flow, Alloy Dispersion and Inclusion Motion in Argon-stirred Steel Ladles
Fostering Minerals Workforce Skills of Tomorrow through Education and Training Partnerships
From Phase Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Modelling to Freeze Linings – The Development of Techniques for the Analysis of Complex Slag Systems
From Sulfide Flash Smelting to a Novel Flash Ironmaking Technology
H1: Nitrogen Solubility in Mn-Fe-Si-C Alloy Melts
Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) of Ca-based, Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) Strips
Kinetic and Thermodynamic Analyses of the Reduction of Oxides of CU and CO in a SIO2-CAO-(AL,FE)2O3 Slag
Kinetics of Reaction Important in Oxygen Steelmaking
Ladle Metallurgy Kinetics: Inclusion-inclusion Reactions
Lean Operations Strategy to Combat Uncertainties in Temperature at BOF Endpoint, Tapping, Deoxidation, Alloy Addition and Thermal History
Metallurgical Plant Optimization through the Use of Flowsheet Simulation Modelling
Modeling of Ladle Metallurgy in Steelmaking
Modelling of Slag Foaming Coupled with Decarburisation
Modelling Simulation and Comparison of Refractory Corrosion at RHI`s Technology Center
Modifications to a Smelter to Accommodate Recycled Materials
Optimization of the Energy Consumption of Metal Electrowinning from Oxides
Oxidation of Flash Reduced Iron Particles in Various Gas Mixtures under the Conditions of a Novel Flash Ironmaking Process
Phenomenological Models and Animations of Welding and their Impact
Process Metallurgy an Enabler of Resource Efficiency – Linking Product Design to Metallurgy
Pyrometallurgical Processing Technologies for Treating High Arsenic Copper Concentrates
Quartz-cristobalite Transformation and Its Effect on Reactions in Si Production, Initial Studies
Reaction Mechanism and Reaction Rate of Sn Evaporation from Liquid Steel
Recent Developments in FactSage Thermochemical Software and Databases
Recovery of Vanadium from a High Ca/V Ratio Vanadium Slag Using Sodium Roasting and Ammonia Leaching
Redoubling Platinum Group Metal Smelting Intensity - Operational Challenges and Solutions
Reduction of Agglomerated Manganese Ores in a 150kW Pilot Scale Furnace
Reduction of the Ni- and Ti-oxide Mixtures by Natural Gas
Removal of Non-metallic Inclusions from Molten Steel Using a High Frequency Magnetic Field
Removal of Pb from Molten Copper by FetO-SiO2(-CaO,Al2O3) Slag Treatment in Mitsubishi Process
Role of Mn Carbides in Carbothermic Processes of Mn Alloys
Simulation of the Gas Flow in a Peirce-Smith Converter
Sintering Process of Nickel Laterite Based of Limonitic Style
Sustainability Education for Minerals and Materials Industry Professionals
Sustainability in Ironmaking: The Rise of Direct Reduction
Teaching Process Simulation in Eleven Easy Lessons Using Excel
Technical Aspects of Large-scale Ferro-alloy Electric Furnace Smelting
The Challenges for Professional Metallurgical Education
The Engineering Design Sequence and Materials Development: 990 Gold-Titanium as a Case Study
The MetSkill Program – Rapidly Developing Effective Young Engineers in the Workplace.
The Use of Natural Gas for Reduction of Metal Oxides: Constraints and Prospects
Thermodynamic Optimization of Mn-Si-C System
Valorization of Electrical Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag
Viscosity-Structure Relationship in the CaO-SiO2-MnO-CaF2 Slag for the Production of Mn Ferroalloys

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