This talk will review our recent studies in two areas. FIRST, a series of studies extend the bulk CALPHAD methods to grain boundaries (GBs). In particular, GB diagrams have been computed to predict activated sintering in W- and Mo-based refractory alloys [J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 95: 2358 (2012)]. This work has been extended to multicomponent alloys [Acta Mater. 91:201 (2015); Current Opinion, in press]. In a broader perspective, the computed GB diagrams (as extensions to bulk phase diagrams) are a useful tool for the Materials Genome Initiative. SECOND, if time permits, flash sintering of oxides will also be discussed. A model has been developed to forecast the onset flash temperatures [Acta Mater. 94:87 (2015)]. Guided by this model, ZnO specimens have been sintered to >97% densities in seconds at furnace temperatures of <120°C [Scripta Mater. 106:26 (2015)]. Further studies investigate the fast densification mechanisms and various electric field/current effects.