As an advanced surface treatment process, laser shock peening has the widely application prospect in aircraft structural parts repairing. The corrosion resistance and fatigue life of the 7075 aluminum alloy, which is widely used in the aerospace industry due to its light weight and high specific strength, improves effectively after laser shock peening. The 7075 aluminum alloy plane fatigue specimen was taken as research object and the corresponding finite element model was established. Subsequently, the finite element simulation of laser shock peening and fatigue test were carried out based on the finite element analysis software ABAQUS and ANSYS Ncode. By adjusting the shock parameters for simulation, the effects of shock parameters (peak pressure value, shock times, overlap ratio) on the residual stress and fatigue life of the specimen were explored. The results show that with the increase of peak pressure value, shock time, overlap ratio, the maximum residual compressive stress on the specimen surface increase and the fatigue life increases as well. When the laser shot peening peak pressure value were 1.57GPa and 2.62GPa, the maximum residual compressive stress were -83.12MPa and -176.6MPa, the fatigue life were 5.13×106 and 1.137×107, respectively. With the increase of the shock times, the maximum residual compressive stress and fatigue life of the specimen increase and tend to be saturated; with the increase of the overlap ratio, the surface residual stress and fatigue life distribution of the specimen tend to be uniform.