Using the recent UNEP Metal Recycling: Opportunities, Limits, Infrastructure report (Reuter etal: http://www.unep.org/resourcepanel/Publications/MetalRecycling/tabid/106143/Default.aspx) as basis, this paper will discuss the pivotal role Process Metallurgy & Technology has in achieving Resource Efficiency.The paper will show with simulation examples how rigorous process design tools such as HSC Sim, FACT Sage, process technology (hydro-, pyrometallurgy e.g. TSL, various furnaces etc.), deep process metallurgy knowhow is linked to quantify the resource efficiency of a consumer product. Furthermore, it will be shown how this should and must be core of design for recycling and sustainability strategies and how CAD tools should be linked to process metallurgy. The paper will show how product design directly links to process metallurgy, recycling etc. As a result it will be shown how process metallurgy feeds into establishing realistic policy and legislation for primary and secondary/recycling metallurgy. This is of utmost interest to our industry in general.