The bottom–up approach is considered a potential alternative for low cost manufacturing of nanostructured materials. It is based on the concept of self–assembly of nanostructures on a substrate, and is emerging as an alternative paradigm for traditional top down fabrication used in the semiconductor industry. We demonstrate various strategies to control nanostructure assembly (both organic and inorganic) at the nanoscale. We study, in particular, multifunctional materials, namely materials that exhibit more than one functionality, and structure/property relationships in such systems. In particular, we devised new strategies for synthesizing multifunctional nanoscale materials for electronics and photovoltaics [1-4]. References:  R. Nechache et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 98, 202902 (2011);  T. Dembele et al., J. Power Sources 233, 93 (2013);  S. Li et al., Chem. Comm. 49, 5856 (2013);  R. Nechache et al., Nature Photonics 9, 61 (2015).